Flood Inundation Mapping of the Hitachi Region in the Kuji River Basin, Japan, During the October 11–13, 2019 Extreme Rain Event
Shakti P. C., Kohin Hirano, and Satoshi Iizuka
National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Resilience (NIED)
3-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0006, Japan
The frequency of severe flood events has been increasing recently in Japan. One of the latest events occurred in October 2019 and caused extensive damage in several river basins, especially in the central and northern regions of the country. In this study, we selected the Hitachi region (Hitachi-Omiya and Hitachi-Ota) within the Kuji River Basin which underwent considerable flooding due to the failure of embankments at two locations in the region. Maximum-possible flood inundation maps were generated using survey-based data and hydrological modeling for the Hitachi region. These maps incorporated the flood scenarios (embankment failures). All the generated products were compared with the reference flood mapping, i.e., Sentinel-1 data and Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI) data for that region. It was observed that generated flood inundation mapping product based on the survey-data yielded results similar to those obtained with GSI data for the Hitachi region. Although each flood mapping product has advantages and disadvantages, they can be a good reference for the proper management and mitigation of flood disaster in the future. The rapid development of flood inundation mapping products that consider varying flood scenarios is an important part of flood mitigation strategies.
-  Y. Shimizu, N. Tokashiki, and F. Okada, “The September 2000 torrential rain disaster in the Tokai region: Investigation of a mountain disaster caused by heavy rain in three prefectures; Aichi, Gifu and Nagano,” J. Natural Disaster Sci., Vol.24, No.2, pp. 51-59, 2002.
-  T. Sato, T. Fukuzono, and S. Ikeda, “The Niigata flood in 2004 as a flood risk of low probability but high consequence,” S. Ikeda, T. Fukuzono, and T. Sato (Eds.), “A better integrated management of disaster risks: Toward resilient society to emerging disaster risks in mega-cities,” pp. 177-192, TERRAPUB and NIED, 2006.
-  K. Asahiro, M. Tani, and H. Kanekiyo, “Support for farmland restoration through mutual assistance after flood disasters in hilly and mountainous areas –Cases of the cities of Yame and Ukiha affected by the torrential rainfall in Northern Kyushu in July 2012–,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.10, No.5, pp. 794-806, doi: 10.20965/jdr.2015.p0794, 2015.
-  S. P. C., R. Misumi, T. Nakatani, K. Iwanami, M. Maki, T. Maesaka, and K. Hirano, “Accuracy of quantitative precipitation estimation using operational weather radars: a case study of heavy rainfall on 9–10 September 2015 in the East Kanto region, Japan,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.11, No.5, pp. 1003-1016, doi: 10.20965/jdr.2016.p1003, 2016.
-  S. P. C., T. Nakatani, and R. Misumi, “Hydrological simulation of small river basin in northern Kyushu, Japan during the extreme rainfall event of July 5–6 2017,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.13, No.2, pp. 396-409, doi: 10.20965/jdr.2018.p0396, 2018.
-  S. P. C., H. Kamimera, and R. Misumi, “Inundation analysis of the Oda River Basin in Japan during the flood event of July 6-7, 2018 utilizing local and global hydrographic data,” Water, Vol.12, No.4, Article 1005, doi: 10.3390/w12041005, 2020.
-  A. Idehara and K. Hirano, “Quick estimation method of flood inundation mapping using single point information,” Report of the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Resilience (in Japanese with English abstract) (accepted).
-  K. Toda, “Urban flooding and measures,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.2, No.3, pp. 143-152, doi: 10.20965/jdr.2007.p0143, 2007.
-  K. Inoue, “Flood disaster in Japan,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.2, No.1, pp. 3-10, doi: 10.20965/jdr.2007.p0003, 2007.
-  G. Mouri, D. Minoshima, V. Golosov, S. Chalov, S. Seto, K. Yoshimura, S. Nakamura, and T. Oki, “Probability assessment of flood and sediment disasters in Japan using the total runoff-integrating pathways model,” Int. J. of Disaster Risk Reduct., Vol.3, pp. 31-43, doi: 10.1016/j.ijdrr.2012.11.003, 2013.
-  A. Tominaga, “Lessons learned from Tokai heavy rainfall,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.2, No.1, pp. 50-53, doi: 10.20965/jdr.2007.p0050, 2007.
-  M. Nakamura, S. Kaneda, Y. Wakazuki, C. Muroi, A. Hashimoto, T. Kato, A. Noda, M. Yoshizaki, and K. Yasunaga, “Effects of global warming on heavy rainfall during the Baiu season projected by a cloud-system-resolving model,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.3, No.1, pp. 15-24, doi: 10.20965/jdr.2008.p0015, 2008.
-  T. Ishigaki, R. Kawanaka, T. Ozaki, and K. Toda, “Vulnerability to underground inundation and evacuation in densely urbanized area,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.11, No.2, pp. 298-305, doi: 10.20965/jdr.2016.p0298, 2016.
-  H. Oshikawa, A. Hashimoto, K. Tsukahara, and T. Komatsu, “Impacts of recent climate change on flood disaster and preventive measures,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.3, No.2, pp. 131-141, doi: 10.20965/jdr.2008.p0131, 2008.
-  M. Ohki, M. Watanabe, R. Natsuaki, T. Motohka, H. Nagai, T. Tadono, S. Suzuki, K. Ishii, T. Itoh, T. Yamanokuchi, and M. Shimada, “Flood Area Detection Using ALOS-2 PALSAR-2 Data for the 2015 Heavy Rainfall Disaster in the Kanto and Tohoku Area, Japan,” J. Remote Sens. Soc. Jpn., Vol.13, No.4, pp. 348-359, doi: 10.11440/rssj.36.348, 2016.
-  Geospatial Information Authority of Japan, “GSI Maps,” http://maps.gsi.go.jp [accessed February 12, 2020]
-  S. P. C., T. Nakatani, and R. Misumi, “Analysis of flood inundation in ungauged Mountainous river basins: A case study of an extreme rain event on 5–6 July 2017 in Northern Kyushu, Japan,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.13, No.5, pp. 860-872, doi: 10.20965/jdr.2018.p0860, 2018.
-  Y. Nihei, A. Shinohara, K. Ohta, S. Maeno, R. Akoh, Y. Akamatsu, T. Komuro, T. Kataoka, S. Onomura, and R. Kaneko, “Flooding along Oda River due to the Western Japan heavy rain in 2018,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.14, No.6, pp. 874-885, doi: 10.20965/jdr.2019.p0874, 2019.
-  Y. Morooka and T. Yamada, “Study on the characteristics of rainfall runoff in the Kinugawa River Basin and the evacuation behavior of the residents at the time of Kanto and Tohoku flood disaster in September, 2015,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.12, No.1, pp. 176-186, doi: 10.20965/jdr.2017.p0176, 2017.
-  Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, “Handouts document on damage caused by Typhoon No.19 in 2019,” 2019, http://www.mlit.go.jp/river/shinngikai_blog/shaseishin/kasenbunkakai/shouiinkai/kikouhendou_suigai/1/pdf/02_siryou6.pdf (in Japanese) [accessed February 12, 2020]
-  Ibaraki Prefecture, “Overview of Typhoon No.19: Embankment situation in Kuji River after floods in 2019,” 2019, https://www.pref.ibaraki.jp/doboku/kasen/19gou/documents/kuziproject_part2.pdf (in Japanese) [accessed May 20, 2020]
-  A. Kauffeldt, F. Wetterhall, F. Pappenberger, P. Salamon, and J. Thielen, “Technical review of large-scale hydrological models for implementation in operational flood forecasting schemes on continental level,” Environ. Model. Softw., Vol.75, pp. 68-76, doi: 10.1016/j.envsoft.2015.09.009, 2016.
-  US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), “Hydrologic Modeling System HEC-HMS: Application Guide,” Hydrologic Engineering Center, 2015.
-  K. J. Beven, R. Lamb, P. F. Quinn, R. Romanowicz, and J. Freer, “TOPMODEL,” V. P. Singh (Ed.), “Computer Models of Watershed Hydrology,” pp. 627-668, Water Resources Publications, 1995.
-  X. Liang, D. P. Lettenmaier, E. F. Wood, and S. J. Burges, “A simple hydrologically based model of land surface water and energy fluxes for general circulation models” J. Geophys. Res. Atmospheres, Vol.99, No.D7, pp. 14415-14428, doi: 10.1029/94JD00483, 1994.
-  B. Bhattacharya, M. Mazzoleni, and R. Ugay, “Flood inundation mapping of the sparsely gauged large-scale Brahmaputra Basin using remote sensing products,” Remote Sens., Vol.1, No.5, Article 501, doi: 10.3390/rs11050501, 2019.
-  S.-S. Yoon, “Adaptive blending method of radar-based and numerical weather prediction QPFs for urban flood forecasting,” Remote Sens., Vol.11, No.6, Article 642, doi: 10.3390/rs11060642, 2019.
-  T. Sayama, G. Ozawa, T. Kawakami, S. Nabesaka, and K. Fukami, “Rainfall-runoff-inundation analysis of the 2010 Pakistan flood in the Kabul River Basin,” Hydrological Science J., Vol.57, No.2, pp. 298-312, doi: 10.1080/02626667.2011.644245, 2012.
-  S. P. C. and H. Kamimera, “Flooding in Oda River Basin during torrential rainfall event in July 2018,” Eng. J., Vol.23, No.6, pp. 477-485, doi: 10.4186/ej.2019.23.6.477, 2019.
-  A. Sriariyawat, K. Pakoksung, T. Sayama, S. Tanaka, and S. Koontanakulvong, “Approach to estimate the flood damage in Sukhothai Province using flood simulation,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.8, No.3, pp. 406-414, doi: 10.20965/jdr.2013.p0406, 2013.
-  D. Kuribayashi, M. Ohara, T. Sayama, A. Konja, and H. Sawano, “Utilization of the flood simulation model for disaster management of local government,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.11, No.6, pp. 1161-1175, doi: 10.20965/jdr.2016.p1161, 2016.
-  S. K. Sharma, Y-J. Kwak, R. Kumar, and B. Sarma, “Analysis of hydrological sensitivity for flood risk assessment,” ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf., Vol.7, No.2, Article 51, doi: 10.3390/ijgi7020051, 2018.
-  B. Lehner, K. Verdin, and A. Jarvis, “HydroSHEDS Technical Documentation Version 1.2,” 2013, https://www.hydrosheds.org/images/inpages/HydroSHEDS_TechDoc_v1_2.pdf [accessed March 19, 2020]
-  D. Yamazaki, D. Ikeshima, J. Sosa, P. D. Bates, G. H. Allen, and T. M. Pavelsky, “MERIT Hydro: A high-resolution global hydrography map based on latest topography datasets,” Water Resour. Res., Vol.55, No.6, pp. 5053-5073, doi: 10.1029/2019WR024873, 2019.
-  D. Yamazaki, S. Togashi, A. Takeshima, and T. Sayama, “High-resolution Flow Direction Map of Japan,” J. of Japan Society of Civil Engineers Ser. B1 (Hydraulic Engineering), Vol.74, No.5, pp. I_163-I_168, 2018 (in Japanese with English abstract).
-  S. P. C., T. Nakatani, and R. Misumi, “The role of the spatial distribution of radar rainfall on hydrological modeling for an urbanized river basin in Japan,” Water, Vol.11, No.8, Article 1703, doi: 10.3390/w11081703, 2019.
-  S. P. C., M. Maki, S. Shimizu, T. Maesaka, D.-S. Kim, D.-I. Lee, and H. Iida, “Correction of reflectivity in the presence of partial beam blockage over a mountainous region using X-band dual polarization radar,” J. Hydrometeor., Vol.14, No.3, pp. 744-764, doi: 10.1175/JHM-D-12-077.1, 2013.
-  M. Maki, K. Iwanami, R. Misumi, S.-G. Park, H. Moriwaki, K. Maruyama, I. Watabe, D.-I. Lee, M. Jang, H.-K. Kim, V. N. Bringi, and H. Uyeda, “Semi-operational rainfall observations with X-band multi-parameter radar,” Atmos. Sci. Lett., Vol.6, pp. 12-18, doi: 10.1002/asl.84, 2005.
-  T. Maesaka, M. Maki, K. Iwanami, S. Tsuchiya, K. Kieda, and A. Hoshi, “Operational Rainfall Estimation by X-band MP Radar Network in MLIT, Japan,” 35th Conf. on Radar Meteorology, 2011.
-  K. Hirano, M. Maki, T. Maesaka, R. Misumi, K. Iwanami, and S. Tsuchiya, “Composite Rainfall Map from C-band Conventional and X-band Dual-polarimetric Radars for the Whole of Japan,” 8th European Conf. on Radar in Meteorology and Hydrology, 2014.
-  K. Uddin, M. A. Matin, and F. J. Meyer, “Operational flood mapping using multi-temporal Sentinel-1 SAR images: A Case Study from Bangladesh,” Remote Sens., Vol.11, No.13, Article 1581, doi: 10.3390/rs11131581, 2019.
-  M. A. Clement, C. G. Kilsby, and P. Moore, “Multi-temporal synthetic aperture radar flood mapping using change detection,” J. Flood Risk Manag., Vol.11, No.2, pp. 152-168, doi: 10.1111/jfr3.12303, 2018.
-  N. Y. Nguyen, Y. Ichikawa, and H. Ishidaira, “Estimation of inundation depth using flood extent information and hydrodynamic simulations,” Hydrological Research Letters, Vol.10, No.1, pp. 39-44, doi: 10.3178/hrl.10.39, 2016.
This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internationa License.