Analyzing the Association Between Disaster Risk Preparedness and Environmental Consciousness of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: The Case of Sukagawa City, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan
Naoko Kimura, Satoshi Hoshino, and Kenichiro Onitsuka
Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University
Oiwakecho, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan
This study aims to clarify the relation between preparedness status and the local natural resource conservation of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). SMEs are key actors in sustainable development and local disaster risk reduction. To ensure the quick recovery of business, SMEs are expected to formulate a Business Continuity Plan (BCP). However, the rate of formulation has thus far not been very high among SMEs. This study conducted a questionnaire survey in 2017 targeting SMEs in Sukagawa, Fukushima. We analyzed the 240 responses collected through a Multiple Correspondence Analysis and used Cramer’s coefficient of association to determine the strength of association. Major findings are as follows: 1) Environment-related indices were associated with both BCP formulation and business size, and these associations indicate the possibility of connecting environmental actions or management to BCP formulation. 2) In the association between BCP formulation status and environmental actions, the environmental management system had a stronger association than business size (capital, number of employees). 3) The group interested in the conservation of regulating services related to local natural resources (reducing CO2 emission, water quality, aquatic plants and animals) had a higher rate of BCP formulation. 4) This group considers mutual help more important than self-help or public help. 5) Capital and number of employees have a strong association with both BCP formulation status and their interest in participating in local natural resource conservation. Activities with local society and stakeholders may collectively increase SMEs’ awareness with neighbor enterprises or the local community. It would help both SMEs and local society to build a seamless attitude toward disaster risk reduction, which would contribute to local sustainability.
-  The Small and Medium Enterprise Agency, “White Paper on Small and Medium Enterprises in Japan SME Life Cycle –Continuity in the Next Generation,” National Association of Trade Promotion for Small and Medium Enterprises, 2017, https://www.chusho.meti.go.jp/pamflet/hakusyo/H29/PDF/2017hakusho_eng.pdf [accessed October 25, 2017]
-  Cabinet Office of Japan, “Business Continuity Guideline,” 3rd version, 2013, http://www.bousai.go.jp/kaigirep/kentokai/kentokaigi/01/pdf/sankou6.pdf [accessed April 28, 2016] (in Japanese)
-  H. Maruya, “The present state and regional difference in the assistance measures provided by the prefectural governments etc. for SMEs to introduce a BCP,” J. of Social Safety Science, Tokyo, Vol.9, pp. 37-46, 2007 (in Japanese).
-  H. Maruya, “Proposal for improvement of business continuity management (BCM) based on lessons from the Great East Japan Earthquake,” J. of JSCE, Vol.67, No.2, pp. I_1-I_10, 2011 (in Japanese).
-  T. Koyama, “On social determinants of making business continuity plan,” The J. of Research Institute for Industry and Economics, Vol.22, pp. 257-271, 2011 (in Japanese).
-  C. Wang, E. A. Walker, and J. Redmond, “Explaining the lack of strategic planning in SMEs: the importance of owner motivation,” Int. J. Org. Beh., Vol.12. No.1, pp. 1-16, 2007.
-  S. Nishikawa, S. Beniya, S. Nagamatsu, and M. Nonaka, “Business participation in district based disaster preparedness activities, a new move towards district-wide business continuity planning in commercial zones,” Proc. Ins. Soc. Saf. Sci., Vol.21, pp. 101-104, 2007.
-  C. Isouchi, W. Shiraki, H. Iwahara, H. Inomo, and K. Takahashi, “Formulate guidelines for district continuity plans (DCP) for the event of a large-scale flood disaster and utilization of the community disaster management plan (CDMP),” J. of Japan Society of Civil Engineers, Ser. F6 (Safety Problem), Vol.70, Issue 2, pp. I_31-I_36, 2014 (in Japanese).
-  T. Sashida, S. Nishikawa, and H. Maruya, “Proposal of municipal continuity plan (MCP), a new concept refining the so-called DCP,” Proc. Ins. Soc. Saf. Sci., Vol.33, 2013 (in Japanese).
-  R. Morikawa and H. Ikeda, “Analysis of the factors in the impeding dissemination of BCP to Small and Medium Enterprises,” Proc. of the Annual Conf. of the Institute of Social Safety Science, Vol.20, pp. 37-40, 2007 (in Japanese).
-  B. Sullivan-Taylor and L. Branicki, “Creating resilient SMEs: why one size might not fit all,” Int. J. Prod. Res., Vol.49, No.18, pp. 5565-5579, doi:10.1080/00207543.2011.563837, 2011.
-  S. Hatakeyama, A. Sakata, A. Kawamoto, N. Itoh, and W. Shiraki, “Drawing Concept of Company BCP with Considering District Continuity and Propose of Measures for Reinforcing Disaster Resilience,” J. of Japan Society of Civil Engineers, Ser. F6 (Safety Problem), Vol.69, Issue 2, pp. I_25-I_30, 2013.
-  T. Ono, “Role of private sectors and BCP in Japan,” T. Izumi and R. Shaw (Eds.), “Disaster management and private sectors,” pp. 135-148, doi:10.1007/978-4-431-55414-1_9, 2015.
-  Japan Business Foundation, “Kigyo no jigyo katudo no keizokusei kyoka ni mukete (Towards reinforcement of companies’ business continuity initiatives),” 2013, https://www.keidanren.or.jp/policy/2013/014_honbun.pdf (in Japanese) [accessed October 26, 2017]
-  A. M. Cruz, Y. Kajitani, and H. Tatano, “Natech disaster risk reduction: Can integrated risk governance help?,” Risk Governance, Springer, pp. 441-462, 2015.
-  M. Okano, T. Matsui, K. Matsumura, S. Kato, A. Orita, Y. Yamamoto, O. Saito, and T. Morioka, “Correlation analysis of companies activity for risk and environmental management, environmental systems research,” Com. Env. Sys. Jan. Soc. Civ. Eng., Vol.35, pp. 273-278, 2007 (in Japanese).
-  Sukagawa City, “Sukagawa dai 7-ji sogo keikaku machizukuri bijon (Sukagawa City the 7th Comprehensive Plan for Town Development Vision 2013),” http://www.city.sukagawa.fukushima.jp/2081.htm (in Japanese) [accessed September 14, 2015]
-  Cabinet Office of Japan (Disaster Management), “FY2015 fact-finding survey on company business continuity and disaster preparedness initiatives,” http://www.bousai.go.jp/kyoiku/kigyou/pdf/h27_bcp_report.pdf (in Japanese) [accessed April 29, 2017]
-  Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, “Ecosystems and Human Well-being: A Framework for Assessment,” Island Press, 2003.
-  T. Katori, “Waga kuni ni okeru CSR no ichikankei ni kansuru jissho bunseki (Analysis on the positioning of CSR in Japan),” Dokkyo University Departmental Bullentin Paper, Vol.95, pp. 91-99, 2014 (in Japanese).
-  M. Tonozaki, “The Relationship between CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) and Financial Performance,” Innovation Management, Vol.11, pp. 145-161, 2014 (in Japanese).
-  T. Suga, “Statistical Analysis using Excel for Beginner,” Ohmsha, 2016 (in Japanese).
-  M. Haraguchi, U. Lall, and K. Watanabe, “Building private sector resilience: directions after the 2015 Sendai Framework,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.11, No.3, pp. 535-543. doi:10.20965/jdr.2016.p0535, 2016.
-  Shiga Committee for Economic Development, “BCP Model for SMEs,” http://www.s-douyu.jp/bcp (in Japanese) [accessed December 20, 2018]
-  Aichi Prefecture, “Aichi BCP Model,” http://www.pref.aichi.jp/kinyu/BCP/bcpmodel1.htm (in Japanese) [accessed December 20, 2018]
-  A. B. Carroll et al., “Business & Society: ethics and stakeholder management,” 5th edition, South-Western Publishing, 2003.
-  S. Hatakeyama, A. Sakata, A. Kawamoto, N. Itoh, and W. Shiraki, “Proposal concerning effectiveness mortgage of enterprise BCP based on resilience’s idea,” J. of Japan Society of Civil Engineers, Ser. F6 (Safety Problem), Vol.69 Issue 2, pp. I_25-I_30, 2015 (in Japanese).
-  S. Okabe and A. Nagahira, “Significant factors for implementing BCP,” J. Disaster. Res., Vol.8 No.sp, pp. 773-780, doi:10.20965/jdr.2013.p0773, 2013.
-  H. Baba, T. Watanabe, K. Miyata, and H. Matsumoto, “Area business continuity management, a new approach to sustainable local economy,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.10, No.2, pp. 204-209, doi:10.20965/jdr.2015.p0204, 2015.
-  S. J. Blanke and E. McGrady, “From hot ashes to a cool recovery: reducing risk by acting on business continuity and disaster recovery lessons learned,” Hom. Hea. Care Mng. & Prac. London, Vol.24, No.2, pp. 73-80, doi:10.1177/1084822311425537, 2012.
-  Y. Yaguchi, “Shinsai to kigyo no shakaisei CSR – higashinihon-daishinsai ni okeru kigyokatudou to CSR (Disaster risk and companies’ sociability, CSR – companies’ activities at the event of the Great East Japan Earthquake and CSR),” Soseisha, 240pp., 2014 (in Japanese).
This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.