Database of Crustal Deformation Observed by SAR: Improving Atmospheric Delay Mitigation for Satellite SAR Interferometry and Developing L-Band Multi-Type Portable SAR
Taku Ozawa*1,, Yosuke Aoki*2, Satoshi Okuyama*3, Xiaowen Wang*4, Yousuke Miyagi*1, and Akira Nohmi*5
*1National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Resilience (NIED)
3-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0006, Japan
*2Earthquake Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
*3Meteorological Research Institute, Ibaraki, Japan
*4Southwest Jiaotong University, Sichuan, China
*5Alouette Technology Inc., Tokyo, Japan
Spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and ground-based radar interferometers (GBRIs) can be used to detect spatially detailed crustal deformations that are difficult to detect by on-site observations, the Global Navigation Satellite System, tiltmeters, and so on. To make such crustal deformation information readily available to those engaged in evaluating volcanic activities and researching the mechanisms, we are preparing a database within the Japan Volcanological Data Network data sharing system to store crustal deformation detected by spaceborne SAR and GBRIs (Subtheme 2-1, Project B, the Integrated Program for Next Generation Volcano Research and Human Resource Development). In this study, we examined methods to reduce atmospheric delay noise in SAR interferometry using the numerical weather model and determined the methods for resampling the analytical values of the numerical weather model and estimating atmospheric delay to efficiently determine atmospheric delay. We show that the atmospheric delay can be estimated with higher accuracy by properly combining the isobaric surface and ground surface data of the mesoscale model (MSM) provided by the Japan Meteorological Agency. We are developing a multi-type portable SAR system as a GBRI system such that it would allow campaign observations whenever increased volcanic activities are observed and acquire crustal deformation with a higher temporal resolution than spaceborne SAR for storage in the database. This system employs L-band radar, which has a higher penetrability against vegetation. Two modes of observations are possible: ground-based SAR and car-borne SAR. The prototype was fabricated to conduct experiments necessary to develop a working model. The experimental observations was carried out around Asama volcano, and we confirmed that clear fringe was obtained.
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