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JDR Vol.14 No.5 pp. 701-712
(2019)
doi: 10.20965/jdr.2019.p0701

Paper:

Muographic Observation of Density Variations in the Vicinity of Minami-Dake Crater of Sakurajima Volcano

László Oláh*,†, Hiroyuki K. M. Tanaka*, Gergő Hamar**, and Dezső Varga**

*Earthquake Research Institute, The University of Tokyo
1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032, Japan

Corresponding author

**Wigner Research Centre for Physics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary

Received:
January 21, 2019
Accepted:
May 7, 2019
Published:
August 1, 2019
Keywords:
muography, density imaging, volcanoes, tracking detectors, MWPC
Abstract

Muography is an innovative imaging technique used for inspecting and monitoring density-length variations of large-sized natural or human-made objects based on the measurement of the absorption rate of cosmic-ray muons. The first large-sized, high-resolution muography observatory based on Multi-Wire Proportional Chamber (MWPC) technology is being developed to monitor the mass density variations in the vicinity of Minami-dake crater of Sakurajima volcano. We found that the track rates provided by five ongoing tracking systems with a total surface area of 4 m2 are stable within ±3% from the backward direction, which demonstrates that the MWPC-based Muographic Observation System (MMOS) is applicable for the detection of average density variations above 2%, which is well below the practical limit of 5%. We quantified the time resolution of the designed muography observatory by modeling the muon flux across the volcano; the average density-length variation of 5 (10)% is expected to be detected within 5–20 (2–8) days at a 1σ (68%) confidence level (CL) with an MMOS orientation of 10.86° above the horizon. An automated analysis framework was developed as a data base for raw data reconstruction, analysis, and preparation, and which is accessible via web-server. We observed a more than 2σ CL decrease in average density across the West side of Crater A during the ongoing data collection period. The observed density decrease suggests that the amount of material has decreased inside Crater A due to the consecutive eruptions of Minami-dake during the data collection period from November 30, 2018 to January 11, 2019.

Cite this article as:
L. Oláh, H. Tanaka, G. Hamar, and D. Varga, “Muographic Observation of Density Variations in the Vicinity of Minami-Dake Crater of Sakurajima Volcano,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.14, No.5, pp. 701-712, 2019.
Data files:
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