Experimental Evaluation on Earthquake-Resistance of Road Retaining Wall Using Gabion
Hiroshi Nakazawa*1,, Tadashi Hara*2, Daisuke Suetsugu*3, Tsuyoshi Nishi*4, Kentaro Kuribayashi*5, Katsuaki Miyoshi*6, and Shoji Shimomura*7
*1 Earthquake Disaster Mitigation Research Division, National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Resilience
3-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0006, Japan
*2Kochi University, Kochi, Japan
*3Saga University, Saga, Japan
*4Construction Project Consultants Inc., Tokyo, Japan
*5Eight-Japan Engineering Consultants Inc., Okayama, Japan
*6Matui Wire Netting Industry Co., Ltd., Hyogo, Japan
*7Daiou-Shinyo Construction Co., Ltd., Kochi, Japan
In the 2015 earthquake in Gorkha, Nepal, damaged different kinds of structures around the Kathmandu Basin. On the other hand, in mountainous areas, it was confirmed that gabion structures such as retaining walls along roads showed their high flexibility by performing their functions. In this paper, based on the results of the damage field survey on gabion retaining walls, a full-scale shake table test is conducted to evaluate the earthquake resistance of gabion retaining walls on roads, which are a common site in Nepal. The soil container used for the full-scale shake table test has the following internal dimensions: 4.0 m height, 3.1 m width, and 11.5 m depth. Earthen bank retaining walls with height of 3 m were arranged in three rows in a perpendicular direction to the cross-section, and the ground behind the retaining wall was prepared. The sinusoidal waves of 3 Hz were applied, consisting of 2 s of gradual increase, 4 s of steady part, and 2 s of gradual decrease; the input waves were provided in four stages of acceleration amplitude. Three types of gabion retaining walls were considered, i.e., vertical-type, stepwise-type and gravity-type, and 3D terrestrial laser measurement was conducted before and after shake table test of each case. Comparison of the residual deformations of the gabion retaining walls measured by 3D terrestrial laser showed that the vertical-type wall did not collapse but tilted forward after the shake teble test. A similar damage situation was confirmed by the field survey in Nepal. The other two cases suffered only slight deformation and are considered to be effective structures for application on sites. Finally, the trial wedge method was applied to the experimental results of the vertical-type of gabion retaining and useful suggestions for future earthquake-resistant design were made by comparing the active collapse angle with the positions of deformation, such as cracking which occurred in the ground behind the retaining wall after shaking. Then, the applicability of trial wedge method and its problem in the design of gabion retaining wall were shown.
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