single-dr.php

JDR Vol.13 No.1 pp. 138-151
doi: 10.20965/jdr.2018.p0138
(2018)

Note:

Response-Capacity Analysis of Urban Systems to Support Emergency and Disaster Response in a Developing City: The Case of Yangon, Myanmar

Yasmin Bhattacharya*,†, Takaaki Kato*, Tomoko Matsushita*, Ei Ei Tun**, and Tin Tin Aye**

*Institute of Industrial Sciences, the University of Tokyo
4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505, Japan

Corresponding author

**Yangon Technological University, Yangon, Myanmar

Received:
October 6, 2017
Accepted:
February 8, 2018
Published:
February 20, 2018
Keywords:
urban planning, emergency services, disaster response, medical, firefighting, evacuation, GIS
Abstract

The process of urbanization often results in the accumulation of risks within the urban fabric. These later develop into major vulnerabilities that can cause immense devastation in the event of a disaster. Therefore, as a city develops, it is essential to monitor its growth in order to 1) guide its development to avoid accumulating further risks and 2) enable the urban system to cope with the risks that already exist. This paper focuses on dealing with existing risks and the potential to address disaster-risk response within the existing firefighting framework. It identifies GIS-based spatial-analysis methods that can assist in determining the urban system’s capacity to accommodate the necessary service functions during both regular emergencies and disaster situations. As an example, response-capacity analysis for firefighting services in Yangon City is carried out to identify the inadequacies of the current system. These are then matched with the potential-fire-risk map to consider the demand increase for fire stations in disaster situations due to the likelihood of multiple ignitions. Areas where infrastructural and logistical improvements should be prioritized are discussed, and urban planning measures to help develop a safe and resilient city are considered within the developing-country context.

References
  1. [1] United Nations, “World Urbanization Prospects: The 2014 Revision, Highlights. Department of Economic and Social Affairs,” Population Division, United Nations, 2014.
  2. [2] E. B. Lerner, R. B. Schwartz, and J. E. McGovern, “Chapter 31: Prehospital triage for mass casualties,” In D. Cone, J. H. Brice, T. R. Delbridge, and J. B. Myers (Eds.), Emergency Medical Services: Clinical Practice and Systems Oversight, 2 Volume Set, pp. 288–291, John Wiley & Sons, 2014.
  3. [3] S. Sasser, “Field triage in disasters,” Prehospital Emergency Care, Vol.10, No.3, pp. 322–323, 2006.
  4. [4] Emergency Medical Services Authority, “EMS System Standards and Guidelines,” State of California, 1993, Article 4.05, https://emsa.ca.gov/wp-content/uploads/sites/47/2017/07/emsa101.pdf [accessed Feb. 11, 2018]
  5. [5] K. Peleg and J. S. Pliskin, “A geographic information system simulation model of EMS: reducing ambulance response time,” The American journal of emergency medicine, Vol.22, No.3, pp. 164–170, 2004.
  6. [6] F. Haojun, S. Jianqi, and H. Shike, “Retrospective, analytical study of field first aid following theWenchuan Earthquake in China,” Prehospital and disaster medicine, Vol.26, No.2, pp. 130–134, 2011.
  7. [7] C. H. Schultz, K. L. Koenig, and E. K. Noji, “A medical disaster response to reduce immediate mortality after an earthquake,” New England Journal of Medicine, Vol.334, No.7, pp. 438–444, 1996.
  8. [8] H.-C. Jang, Y.-N. Lien, and T.-C. Tsai, “Rescue information system for earthquake disasters based on MANET emergency communication platform,” In Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing: Connecting the World Wirelessly, pp. 623–627. ACM, 2009.
  9. [9] N. Roy, H. Shah, V. Patel, and R. R. Coughlin, “The Gujarat earthquake (2001) experience in a seismically unprepared area: community hospital medical response,” Prehospital and disaster medicine, Vol.17, No.4, pp. 186–195, 2002.
  10. [10] C. Scawthorn, “Fire Following Earthquake – Analysis and Mitigation in North America,” In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Engineering Lessons Learned from the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, pp. 1–4, 2012.
  11. [11] Comptroller and Auditor General, “NHS Ambulance Services,” National Audit Office, 2017.
  12. [12] A. Nishikawa, “Medical Emergencies and Time Response Standards – principal country response times and its meanings –,” Technical report, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare Special Research Grant Project (in Japanese).
  13. [13] Fire and Disaster Management Agency, “Guidelines for Maintenance of Fire Service Strength,” Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communication, Japan, Oct. 2014, Article 13.
  14. [14] K. Tanigawa and K. Tanaka, “Emergency medical service systems in Japan: past, present, and future,” Resuscitation, Vol.69, No.3, pp. 365–370, 2006.
  15. [15] Y. Bhattacharya, T. Kato, T. Matsushita, and T. T. Aye, “Analysis of Urban Functions for Disaster Situations in Yangon City,” Seisan Kenkyu, Vol.69, No.4, pp. 195–199, 2017.
  16. [16] A. Y. Chen and T.-Y. Yu, “Network based temporary facility location for the Emergency Medical Services considering the disaster induced demand and the transportation infrastructure in disaster response,” Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Vol.91, pp. 408–423, 2016.
  17. [17] A. M. Caunhye, X. Nie, and S. Pokharel, “Optimization models in emergency logistics: A literature review,” Socio-economic planning sciences, Vol.46, No.1, pp. 4–13, 2012.
  18. [18] World Health Organization, “Urban green spaces and health: A review of evidence,” WHO Regional Office for Europe, pp. 25–28, 2016.
  19. [19] Bureau of Urban Development, “Section 5: Urban Disaster Prevention,” Tokyo Metropolitan Government (in Japanese).
  20. [20] Director General for Disaster Management, “Report on Wide Area Disaster Mitigation for Shizuoka, Kanagawa, and Yamanashi Prefectures,” Technical report, Cabinet Office of Japan, 2005 (in Japanese).
  21. [21] Urban Safety Affairs Division, “Reference Materials for Urban Disaster Management”. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, Japan, Oct. 1997 (in Japanese).
  22. [22] N. Khademi, B. Balaei, M. Shahri, M. Mirzaei, B. Sarrafi, M. Zahabiun, and A. S. Mohaymany, “Transportation network vulnerability analysis for the case of a catastrophic earthquake,” International journal of disaster risk reduction, Vol.12, pp. 234–254, 2015.
  23. [23] S.-U. Rahman and D. K. Smith, “Use of location-allocation models in health service development planning in developing nations” European Journal of Operational Research, Vol.123, No.3, pp. 437– 452, 2000.
  24. [24] C. Green, G. Mans, P. Schmitz, D. McKelly, and M. Te Water, “Planning for emergency services using GIS-based geographic accessibility analysis,” Town and Regional Planning, Vol.64, pp. 53–64, 2014.
  25. [25] A. T. Murray, “Optimising the spatial location of urban fire-stations,” Fire Safety Journal, Vol.62, pp. 64–71, 2013.
  26. [26] Bureau of Urban Development, “Your Community’s Earthquake Risk: The Seventh Community Earthquake Risk Assessment Study,” Technical report, Tokyo Metropolitan Government, 2013 (in Japanese).
  27. [27] Department of Population, The Republic Union of Myanmar, “Thematic report on population projections for the union of Myanmar, states/regions, rural and urban areas, 2014-2050,” 2014 Census Report Volume 4-F, 2017.
  28. [28] M. Wyss, “Estimated human losses in future earthquakes in central Myanmar,” Seismological Research Letters, Vol.1, No.79(4), pp. 520-5, 2008.
  29. [29] M. Kojima, T. Futose, P. Le Binh, and H. Kato, “Yangon’s Urban Transportation: Traffic Demand and Its Quality of Service,” Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, Vol.11, pp. 243–262, 2015.
Cite this article as:
Yasmin Bhattacharya, Takaaki Kato, Tomoko Matsushita, Ei Ei Tun, and Tin Tin Aye, “Response-Capacity Analysis of Urban Systems to Support Emergency and Disaster Response in a Developing City: The Case of Yangon, Myanmar,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.13, No.1, pp. 138-151, 2018
Yasmin Bhattacharya, Takaaki Kato, Tomoko Matsushita, Ei Ei Tun, and Tin Tin Aye, J. Disaster Res., Vol.13, No.1, pp. 138-151, 2018

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, IE9,10,11, Opera.

Last updated on Jun. 14, 2018