Response-Capacity Analysis of Urban Systems to Support Emergency and Disaster Response in a Developing City: The Case of Yangon, Myanmar
Yasmin Bhattacharya*,†, Takaaki Kato*, Tomoko Matsushita*, Ei Ei Tun**, and Tin Tin Aye**
*Institute of Industrial Sciences, the University of Tokyo
4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505, Japan
**Yangon Technological University, Yangon, Myanmar
The process of urbanization often results in the accumulation of risks within the urban fabric. These later develop into major vulnerabilities that can cause immense devastation in the event of a disaster. Therefore, as a city develops, it is essential to monitor its growth in order to 1) guide its development to avoid accumulating further risks and 2) enable the urban system to cope with the risks that already exist. This paper focuses on dealing with existing risks and the potential to address disaster-risk response within the existing firefighting framework. It identifies GIS-based spatial-analysis methods that can assist in determining the urban system’s capacity to accommodate the necessary service functions during both regular emergencies and disaster situations. As an example, response-capacity analysis for firefighting services in Yangon City is carried out to identify the inadequacies of the current system. These are then matched with the potential-fire-risk map to consider the demand increase for fire stations in disaster situations due to the likelihood of multiple ignitions. Areas where infrastructural and logistical improvements should be prioritized are discussed, and urban planning measures to help develop a safe and resilient city are considered within the developing-country context.
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