single-dr.php

JDR Vol.12 No.6 pp. 1192-1202
doi: 10.20965/jdr.2017.p1192
(2017)

Survey Report:

Participatory Multi-Stakeholder Platforms in Disaster Management in South Africa

Nosiphiwe P. Ngqwala*, C. Sunitha Srinivas*, Roman Tandlich*,†, Desmond M. Pyle**, and Rene Oosthuizen**

*Environmental Health and Biotechnology Research Group/
Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Division of Pharmacy Practice,
Faculty of Pharmacy, Rhodes University
P.O. Box 94, Grahamstown 6140, South Africa

Corresponding author

**School of Disaster Management, Stenden South Africa, Port Alfred, South Africa

Received:
November 4, 2016
Accepted:
September 21, 2017
Online released:
November 29, 2017
Published:
December 1, 2017
Keywords:
disaster management act, NGOs, participatory approach, crisis management platforms
Abstract

South Africa is a country that is prone to droughts, earthquakes and other disasters. In this environment, non-governmental stakeholders often provide a substantial part of the relief in affected areas. Non-governmental stakeholders have the experience needed to address the various disaster management challenges currently facing South Africa. This is especially true in the context of local disasters. Therefore an attempt is made in this report to investigate the relevant legal framework, which allows for the formalization of the involvement of non-governmental stakeholders in official disaster management activities in South Africa. Parts of the basic disaster management legislation, i.e. the Disaster Management Act no. 57/2002, contain definitions and requirements for the establishment of the relevant multi-stakeholder crisis management platforms, i.e. the “disaster management advisory forums.” This legislation is analysed in relation to the Hyogo Framework for Action and the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction. Disaster management systems from two cities in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, i.e. Knysna and Cape Town, were identified as models for the potential practical execution of these multi-stakeholder platforms at the local government level. Importance of additional aspects of the legal framework, e.g. the role of traditional leaders, are also outlined.

References
  1. [1] Australian Government – Bureau of Meteorology, “What is El Niño and what might it mean for Australia?” 2016, avaialble at: http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/updates/articles/a008-el-ninoand-australia.shtml [accessed February 20, 2016]
  2. [2] Reliefweb, “Securing Tuvalu’s water supply,” 2012, available at: http://reliefweb.int/report/tuvalu/securing-tuvalu%E2%80%99s-water-supply [accessed February 20, 2016]
  3. [3] Centres for Diseases Control and Prevention, “Water, Sanitation, & Hygiene (WASH)-related Emergencies & Outbreaks,” 2016, available at: http://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/emergency/extreme-weather/drought.html [accessed February 20, 2016]
  4. [4] Biznews, “Water shortages loom for SA: worst drought in two decades,” 2015, available at: http://www.biznews.com/undictated/2015/05/20/water-shortages-loom-for-sa-worstdrought-in-two-decades/ [accessed February 20, 2016]
  5. [5] OXFAM, “Entering Uncharted Waters: El Niño and the threat to food security,” 2015, available at: https://www.oxfam.org/sites/www.oxfam.org/files/file_attachments/mb-el-ninouncharted-waters_1.pdf [accessed February 20, 2016]
  6. [6] D. A. Smith, “Flood damage estimation – A review of urban stage-damage curves and loss functions,” Water SA Vol.20, No.3, pp. 231-238, 1994.
  7. [7] V. Midzi, J. J. Bommer, F. O. Strasser, P. Albini, B. S. Zulu, K. Prasad, and N. S. Flint, “An intensity database for earthquakes in South Africa from 1912 to 2011,” J. of Seismology, Vol.17, No.4, pp. 1183-1205, 2013.
  8. [8] S. Hoossein, R. Tandlich, K. Whittington-Jones, R. K. Laubscher, P. Madikizela, and B. M. Zuma, “Disaster Management policy options to address the sanitation challenges in South Africa,” J. of Environmental Health, Vol.78, No.7, pp. E1-E7, 2016.
  9. [9] R. Tandlich, C. D. Luyt, T. G. Chirenda, P. Madikizela, M. H. Wisch, and D. M. Pyle, “Stakeholder participation and sustainable disaster management planning in South Africa,” Presented at the 1st Int, Conf. on Information and Communication Technologies for Disaster Management, held in Algiers, Algeria from 24-25th March 2014, Paper No.109, 2014.
  10. [10] NEWS24, “Woman’s water initiave gets overwhelming response,” 2015, available at: http://www.news24.com/SouthAfrica/News/womans-water-initiative-gets-overwhelmingresponse-20151228 [accessed February 20, 2016]
  11. [11] Gift of the Givers, “Unilever Ice Cream Distribution,” 2016, available at: http://www.giftofthegivers.org/disaster-relief/south-africa/1038-2016-disaster-reliefsa/sa-drought/5349-unilever-ice-cream-distribution [accessed February 20, 2016]
  12. [12] R. Tandlich, M. Ncube, S. M. M. Khamanga, and B. M. Zuma, “A case study on the health risks related to flood disasters in South Africa,” J. of Disaster Research, Vol.11, No.4, pp. 732-741, 2016.
  13. [13] United Nations, “Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030,” 2012-2015, available at: http://www.preventionweb.net/files/43291_sendaiframeworkfordrren.pdf [accessed March 11, 2017]
  14. [14] A. Gero, K. Méheux, and D. Dominey-Howes, “Integrating community based disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation: examples from the Pacific,” Natural Hazards and Earth Systems Sciences, Vol.11, pp. 101-113, 2011.
  15. [15] B. Ncube and A. Lagardien, “Insights into indigenous coping strategies to drought for adaptation in agriculture: A Karoo Scenario,” Water Research Commission of South Africa (report number: 2084/1/15), Pretoria, South Africa, 2015.
  16. [16] Centre for Disaster Philanthropy, “Disaster Management Cycle,” 2016, available at: disasterphilanthropy.org/issue-insight/the-disaster-life-cycle/ [accessed March 10, 2016]
  17. [17] Disaster Management Act No.57 of 2002, 2002, available at: http://www.ndmc.gov.za/portals/0/WebDocuments/Guidelines/DM/downloads/SJ%206%20DM%20Act%2057-02.pdf [accessed May 8, 2015]
  18. [18] D. van Niekerk, “A critical analysis of the South African Disaster Management Act and Policy Framework,” Disasters, Vol.38, No.4, pp. 858-877, 2014.
  19. [19] South African National Register of Disaters, 2015, available at: http://www.ndmc.gov.za/LinkClick.aspx?link=http%3a%2f%2fsrs.ndmc.gov.za%2f&tabid=39&mid=653 [accessed May 26, 2015]
  20. [20] India Disaster Resource Network, available at: idrn.gov.in/ default.asp [accessed March 5, 2017, undated/current]
  21. [21] South African Naitonal Disater Management Centre, “GIS portal,” 2017, available at: http://gisportal.ndmc.gov.za/ [accessed May 9, 2017]
  22. [22] R. Tandlich, T. G. Chirenda, S. Hoossein, and D. M. Pyle, “Weather forecasting and its legal framework for disaster management in South Africa,” Published in the peer-reviewed proceedings from the 13th SGEM GeoConf. on Water Resources. Forest, Marine and Ocean Ecosystems, Albena, Bulgaria from 16th until 22nd June 2013, pp. 471 – 478, DOI:10.5593/SGEM2013/BC3/S12.060 (ISSN 1314-2704, ISBN 978-619-7105-02-5), 2013.
  23. [23] South African Weather and Disaster Observation Service, 2013, available at: sawdis1.blogpspot.co.za [accessed March 14, 2013]
  24. [24] South African Naitonal Disaster Management Centre, “What We Do,” 2017, available at: http://web.ndmc.gov.za/Pages/whatwedo.aspx [accessed May 9, 2017]
  25. [25] South African Disaster Management Framework, available at: https://www.westerncape.gov.za/text/2013/July/sa-national-disaster-man-framework-2005.pdf [accessed May 10, 2017]
  26. [26] South African Government, “Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 – Chapter 5: The President and the National Executive,” 2017, available at: www.gov.za/documents/constitution-republic-south-africa-1996-chapter-5-president-and-national-executive#83 [accessed February 23, 2017]
  27. [27] The White House, “Chapter Five: Lessons Learned – Hurricane Katrina Critical Challenges,” 2005, available at: http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/reports/katrina-lessons-learned/chapter5.html [accessed February 23, 2017]
  28. [28] South African Disaster Management Amendment Act No.16 of 2015, 2015, available at: www.gov.za/sites/www.gov.za/files/39520 _Act16of2015DisasterManAmendAct.pdf [accessed February 24, 2017]
  29. [29] S. M. Fletcher, J. Thiessen, A. Gero, M. Rumsey, N. Kuruppu, and J. Willetts, “Traditional coping strategies and disaster response: examples from the South Pacific region,” J. of Environmental and Public Health, Article 264503, 2013.
  30. [30] O. I. Maferetlhane, “The role of indigenous knowledge in disaster risk reduction: a critical analysis. Masters of Development thesis,” North-West University, Potchefstroom campus, South Africa, 2013.
  31. [31] South African National Disaster Management Centre, “Annual Report 2015/2016,” 2017, available at: web.ndmc.gov.za [accessed May 11, 2017]
  32. [32] World Conf. on Disaster Reduction, “Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015: Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters,” Kobe/Hyogo, Japan, 18th to 22nd January 2005, 2005.
  33. [33] South African Department of Environmental Affairs, “Climate Information and Early Warning Systems to Support Disater Risk Reduction and Management uner Future Climate Conditions in South Africa,” 2014.
  34. [34] R. Tandlich, C. D. Luyt, B. Irwin, H. Thinyane, and N. Köhly, “Non-governmental information sources about microbial drinking water quality in South Africa,” Published in the peer-reviewed conference proceedings from the 15th SGEM GeoConf. on Water Resources. Forest, Marine and Ocean Ecosystems, Volume 2: ecology, economics, education and legislation conference proceedings- ecology and environmental protection environmental legislation, multilateral relations and funding opportunities, Albena, Bulgaria from 18th until 24th June 2015, published by STEF92 technology, pp. 761-768, (ISBN 978-619-7105-40-7), 2015.
  35. [35] South African National Disater Management Centre, “eConvenor,” 2017, available at: events.ndmc.gov.za [accessed May 10, 2017]
  36. [36] South African National Disater Management Centre, Draft minutes from the NDMAF meeting held on 17th May 2007, 2007.
  37. [37] South African National Disater Management Centre, Draft minutes from the NDMAF meeting held on 17th February 2009, 2009.
  38. [38] South African National Disater Management Centre, Action/draft minutes from the NDMAF meeting held on 22nd May 2012, 2007-2012.
  39. [39] South African National Disater Management Centre, Draft minutes from the NDMAF meeting held on 4th September 2014, 2014.
  40. [40] Western Cape Provincial Disaster Management Framework, 2013, available at: www.westerncape.gov.za/text/2013/July/provin07ex-gaz-disaster-3 -oct-2007.pdf [accessed December 28, 2015]
  41. [41] South African National Disaster Management Centre, “The 2009/2010 Annual Report,” 2012, available at: http://www.cogta.gov.za/cgta_2016/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/NDMC-ANNUAL-REPORT-2009-2010-FINAL-14-May-2012.pdf [accessed May 11, 2017]
  42. [42] L. M. Buys, “Status of disaster management in South Africa,” Department of Provincial and Local Government, Pretoria, South Africa, 2005.
  43. [43] J. Twigg, “Disaster risk reduction: mitigation and preparedness in development and emergency programming,” Overseas Development Institute, London, UK, 2004.
  44. [44] T. Chagutah, “Towards improved public awareness for climate related disaster risk reduction in South Africa: A participatory development communication perspective,” J. of Disaster Risk Studies, Vol.2, No.1, pp. 113-126, 2009.
  45. [45] Food and Agricultural Organisation, “Communication for development manual,” Presented at the 2nd Bilingual Regional Workshop on methodologies for designing and implementing multimedia communication strategies and national communication policies, held in Niamey, Niger from 1st until 5th April 2002, 2002.
  46. [46] J. F. Warner, “More Sustainable Participation? Multi-Stakeholder Platforms for Integrated Catchment Management,” Int. J. of Water Resources Development, Vol.22, Issue 1. pp. 15-35, 2006, available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07900620500404992 [accessed March 3, 2015]
  47. [47] R. Djalante. “Adaptive governance and resilience: the role multi-stakeholder platforms in disaster risk reduction” Natural Hazards and Earth Science Systems, Vol.12, pp. 2923-2942, 2012.
  48. [48] J. Warner, P. Waalewijn, and D. Hilhorst, “Public participation in disaster-prone watersheds: time for multi-stakeholder platforms?” 2002, available at: www.academia.edu /1372486/Public_Participation_in_Disaster-prone_Watersheds_Time _for _Multi-stakeholder _Platforms [accessed February 24, 2017]
  49. [49] Knysna Local Municipality Disaster Management Plan – Latest Update from 17th February 2014, 2014, available at: http://www.knysna.gov.za/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/DISASTER-MANAGEMENT-PLAN-17-02-2014-NEWEST.pdf [accessed May 26, 2015]
  50. [50] City of Cape Town, “Municipal Disaster Risk Management Plan,” 2012, available at: http://www.capetown.gov.za/en/IDP/Documents/Statutory%20compliance%20plans%20201213/AnnexureC_Disaster_Risk_Management_Plan_Rev_5Apr.pdf [accessed May 26, 2015]

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, IE9,10,11, Opera.

Last updated on Jan. 19, 2018