Proposing A Multi-Hazard Approach to Disaster Management Education to Enhance Children’s “Zest for Life”: Development of Disaster Management Education Programs to Be Practiced by Teachers
Toshimitsu Nagata*,† and Reo Kimura**
*Utsunomiya Local Meteorological Office of Meteorological Agency
1-4 Akebono-cho, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 320-0845, Japan
**School of Human Science and Environment, University of Hyogo, Hyogo, Japan
This study reviews the current situation and problems in disaster management education in schools in Japan, proposes systematic programs for elementary and junior high school students, and the proposed programs are verified and evaluated in different schools. The programs aim to educate the students of the correct knowledge on various natural disasters and enhance their capacities to forecast and avoid the risks on their own initiatives.
The programs have an advantage that it can be implemented by teachers who can practice disaster management education in the ordinary learning process for elementary and junior high school students in schools; disaster management specialists are not needed for its implementation.
Prior to the development of the programs, an awareness survey was conducted to both elementary and junior high school students and teachers regarding their level of “consciousness of the crisis of school safety caused by natural disasters, among others.” The results of the survey revealed that “the disaster management education based on earthquake disaster is effective for students and teachers as a starting point of the learning, since they have already experienced an earthquake and a disaster drill targeting earthquake in their lives.” Thus, the proposed education programs have been designed that earthquake and other natural hazards disaster management education are practiced not separately but jointly to foster children’s “zest for life” at a time of natural disasters. The proposed two programs correspond to earthquake and tornado, and each program consists of three parts. The teaching materials, such as the proposed guidance and worksheet, have been prepared using editable files to allow teachers to edit the content by themselves.
A survey method based on the ADDIE process of instructional design is adopted. In the ADDIE process, effectiveness of the proposed education programs is measured through the students’ self-assessment on the extent to which the programs’ learning objectives have been attained. Consequently, the proposed programs are evaluated by measuring the degree of attainment several times: before, during, and after the implementations. As a result of the evaluation, the earthquake and tornado disaster management education programs proved to be highly effective for education. Findings also proved that the knowledge acquired and capabilities improved through the proposed programs can be maintained by repeating the practice of the programs.
In carrying out this study, cooperation with disaster prevention organizations and educational institutions was indispensable. To further realize such cooperation, this study proposes that the specific educational institutions, Prefectural Board of Education, Municipal Board of Education, and model schools that are willing to implement the programs must cooperate with one another.
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