Enhancement of Flood Countermeasures of Japanese-Affiliated Firms Based on the Lessons Learned from the 2011 Thai Flood
Yoko Hagiwara†, Daisuke Kuribayashi, and Hisaya Sawano
International Centre for Water Hazard and Risk Management (ICHARM), Public Works Research Institute
1-6 Minamihara, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8516, Japan
The flood in the Chao Phraya River basin in 2011 caused 815 deaths and more than $45 billion in economic damage to Thailand. The industrial sector, the main contributor to the country’s economy, suffered especially devastating economic damage due to inundation of the industrial areas in the river basin. Seven industrial areas, where the total share of Japanese-affiliated firms was more than half, were most severely hit by the flood. In this study, a survey was conducted with Japanese-affiliated firms from February–March 2015 with the purpose of further strengthening their flood countermeasures in the future. The firms’ factories were asked which lessons from the 2011 flood they considered important and whether their experiences from the flood had been applied to strengthening their flood countermeasures. It was found that these factories, regardless of their inundation status in 2011, considered “preparation of a business continuity plan or manual for possible floods” to be the most important lesson from the 2011 flood. However, when it comes to actual implementation of flood countermeasures, the factories that were inundated in 2011 strengthened flood countermeasures much more than the factories with only indirect damage. In both groups, however, collaboration with business partners and local communities as well as use of reliable flood-related information were revealed to be the areas where further strengthening would be possible.
-  D. Komori, S. Nakamura, M. Kiguchi, A. Nishijima, D. Yamazaki, S. Suzuki, A. Kawasaki, K. Oki, and T. Oki, “Characteristics of the 2011 Chao Phraya River flood in Central Thailand,” Hydrological Research Letters, Vol.6, pp. 41-46, 2012.
-  Asian Disaster Reduction Center, “Thailand Country Profiles 2011,” http://www.adrc.asia/countryreport/THA/2011/FY2011B_THA_CR.pdf [accessed June 1, 2014]
-  Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, Government of Japan, “White Paper on International Economy and Trade 2012,” 2012, http://www.meti.go.jp/english/report/data/gIT2012maine.html [accessed June 1, 2016]
-  UNITAR Operational Satellite Applications Programme (UNOSAT), “Update 3: Overview of flood waters over Central Provinces, Thailand, 24 October 2011,” 2011, http://unosat-maps.web.cern.ch/unosat-maps/TH/FL20111007THA/UNOSAT_THA_FF20111025_ENVISAT_WSM_20111024_v1.pdf [accessed May 7, 2015]
-  Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO), “Special Feature: Information on Thailand’s Reconstruction from the Flood, December 26, 2011,” 2011 (in Japanese), http://www.jetro.go.jp/world/asia/th/flood/complex.html [accessed May 20, 2015]
-  World Bank, “Thailand Flood 2011: Rapid Assessment for Resilient Recovery and Reconstruction Planning,” https://www.gfdrr.org/sites/gfdrr/files/publication/Thai_Flood_2011_2.pdf [accessed January 12, 2014]
-  T. Okazumi, T. Nakasu, M. Sugimoto, and Y. Adikari, “Lessons learnt from two unprecedented disasters in 2011: Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan and Chao Phraya River flood in Thailand,” Background Paper prepared for the 2013 Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction. Geneva, Switzerland: UNISDR, http://www.preventionweb.net/english/hyogo/gar/2013/en/bgdocs/Okazumi%20et.%20al.%202012.pdf [accessed September 26, 2016]
-  Y. Hagiwara, D. Kuribayashi, T. Okazumi, and T. Nakasu, “Characteristics of the chain-reaction damage of the Japanese firms affected by the 2011 Thai flood,” Advances in River Engineering, Vol.20, pp. 397-402, 2014 (in Japanese).
-  H. Sawano, D. Kuribayashi, and Y. Hagiwara, “Lessons Learned from the Flood Disaster in Industrial Estates/Parks/Zones in Thailand,” Technical Note of PWRI, No.4322, 2016.
-  Sanno Institute of Management, “Summary of the final report: survey on development and utilization of global human resources,” p. 4, 2012 (in Japanese), http://www.hj.sanno.ac.jp/files/cp/page/7822/research_summary_for_global-leader.pdf [accessed May 20, 2015]
-  Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, “Action of enterprises for disaster prevention: self-assessment checklist for enterprises,” 2nd ed. pp. 7-8. 2007 (in Japanese), http://www.bousai.go.jp/kyoiku/kigyou/pdf/evaluation02.pdf [accessed December 8, 2014]
-  United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, “THAILAND: Floods as of 21 December 2011,” http://reliefweb.int/map/thailand/floods-21-december-2011 [accessed May 20, 2015]
-  Japan International Cooperation Agency, “Project for the comprehensive flood management plan for the Chao Phraya River basin: final report,” Vol.2: Main Report, September 2013.
-  H. Sawano, D. Kuribayashi, and Y. Hagiwara, “Survey Report on the Impact of the 2011 Chao Phraya River Flood on Activities of the Manufacturing Industry,” Technical Note of PWRI, No.4323, 2016 (in Japanese).
-  Business Policy Forum, Japan, “Research report on improving effectiveness of business continuity in the private sector in light of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami,” pp. 53-54, 2013 (in Japanese), http://www.bpfj.jp/act/download_file/68127081/18135416.pdf [accessed January 17, 2014]
-  Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, Government of Japan, Summary of non-scenario-based crisis response training, 2013 (in Japanese), referred in H. Sawano, D. Kuribayashi, and Y. Hagiwara, “Lessons Learned from the Flood Disaster in Industrial Estates/Parks/Zones in Thailand,” p4. Technical Note of PWRI, No.4322, 2016.
-  JETRO, “Guide to Collecting Flood-related Information from Thailand Integrated Water Resources Management Database,” 2012, https://www.jetro.go.jp/ext_images/world/asia/th/flood/pdf/thaiwater_db.pdf [accessed August 11, 2014]
-  Keidanren (Japan Business Federation), “Towards the strengthening of BCP / BCM cooperation between enterprises,” 2014 (in Japanese), https://www.keidanren.or.jp/policy/2014/010_honbun.pdf [accessed August 12, 2014]
-  A. Perwaiz, “Thailand Floods and Impact on Private Sector” in T. Izumi and R. Shaw ed., “Disaster Management and Private Sectors, Challenges and Potentials,” Springer, Japan, 2015.