An Approach to Next-Generation Water Disaster Study – In Commemoration of the 10th Anniversary of the Establishment of ICHARM –
Toshio Koike, Kuniyoshi Takeuchi, and Shinji Egashira
International Centre for Water Hazard and Risk Management (ICHARM) under the Auspices of UNESCO, Public Works Research Institute (PWRI) Minamihara, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
In March 2015, the Third World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction adopted the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction with a two-part goal: to prevent new and reduce existing disaster risks through the implementation of integrated and inclusive measures that prevent and reduce hazard exposure and vulnerability to disaster, and to increase preparedness for response and recovery, thus strengthening resilience. The first priority for action was given to ”understanding disaster risk,” including focusing on the collection and use of data, risk assessment, disaster prevention education, and awareness raising. The stance of emphasizing science and technology was clearly expressed.
In September 2015, the UN Summit meeting adopted the 17 goals of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Four of the 17 goals include targets related to disaster prevention and mitigation, which has given rise to active discussions over measurement methods and indicators for the targets. The Paris Conference of the UN Climate Change Conference (COP21), held from the end of November to early December 2015, placed an emphasis on the importance of science and technology in both mitigation and adaptation.
In light of these international discussions and their outcomes, we called for papers on the following three topics for this special edition featuring water disasters.
- (1) Prevention of new water disaster risks: rainfall prediction, flood and drought prediction, river bed change prediction, climate change, land use plans, etc.
- (2) Reduction of existing water disaster risks: disaster data and statistics, risk monitoring, risk assessment, etc.
- (3) Resilience reinforcement and inclusive measures: disaster recovery, risk communication, competence development, etc.
Nineteen papers were applied to this special issue. All papers were peer reviewed, and sixteen papers are included herein. We received invaluable comments and suggestions for all applications from the points of view of various fields from many experts in Japan and overseas. We would like to express our gratitude for these.