single-dr.php

JDR Vol.11 No.5 pp. 1003-1016
doi: 10.20965/jdr.2016.p1003
(2016)

Paper:

Accuracy of Quantitative Precipitation Estimation Using Operational Weather Radars: A Case Study of Heavy Rainfall on 9–10 September 2015 in the East Kanto Region, Japan

Shakti P. C.*, Ryohei Misumi*, Tsuyoshi Nakatani*, Koyuru Iwanami*, Masayuki Maki**, Takeshi Maesaka*, and Kohin Hirano*

*National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Resilience (NIED)
3-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0006, Japan

**Kagoshima University
1-21-40 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065, Japan

Received:
May 18, 2016
Accepted:
August 17, 2016
Online released:
October 3, 2016
Published:
October 1, 2016
Keywords:
heavy rainfall, radar rainfall, rain gauge, spatial and temporal variation, frequency distribution
Abstract

On 9–10 September 2015, the East Kanto region of Japan experienced a period of record-breaking heavy rainfall that caused a number of fatalities and serious property damage. The maximum 24-hr rainfall total (0600 UTC 9 September 2015 to 0600 UTC 10 September 2015), about 500 mm, was recorded over Tochigi Prefecture. Spatial and temporal variations in the meteorological and hydrological characteristics of this rainfall event were analyzed using data from the Japan Meteorological Agency’s (JMA) C-band radar network and data from the X-band polarimetric radar network (XRAIN). The rain gauge data available from the Kanto region has a temporal resolution of 10 min. The spatial and temporal resolutions of the JMA C-band radar data are 1000 m and 5 min, respectively, whereas the XRAIN radar has spatial and temporal resolutions of 250 m and 1 min, respectively. Data from the two radar networks were compared, both with each other and with data from various rain gauge networks to validate their accuracy. The 24-hr total rainfall data from both radar networks showed frequency distributions similar to those showed by the rain gauge data. However, the JMA and XRAIN data showed different distributions for the higher rainfall intensity thresholds. There was no relationship evident between rainfall and elevation in either of the radar datasets recorded during this event. The spatial distribution of rainfall over the study area derived from XRAIN showed clear variations, whereas the JMA radar did not. This is most probably related to the coarser spatial and temporal resolutions of the JMA observations. Based on a comparison of data from the rain gauge and radar networks, the XRAIN data more accurately reflected the rain gauge stations than did the JMA data. From a hydrological perspective, the Kinugawa watershed is unique in terms of its topography. The upper part of the watershed is wide and mountainous, whereas the rest is narrow and elongate north–south. The rain echo moved from south to north over the catchment, and the highest 24-hr accumulated rainfall totals were recorded mostly in the upper (northern) part of the Kinugawa watershed, whereas there was less rainfall in the lower (southern) part. This pattern suggests a high probability of serious flooding along the Kinugawa River in the days following such a rainfall event if the heaviest rainfall moves northwards over the watershed.

References
  1. [1] K. P. Georgakakos, “Analytical results for operational flash flood guidance,” J. Hydrol., Vol.317, pp. 81-103, 2006.
  2. [2] M. Kobiyama and R. F. Goerl, “Quantitative method to distinguish flood and flash flood as disasters,” SUISUI Hydrological Research Letters, Vol.1, pp. 11-14, 2007.
  3. [3] H. Oshikawa, A. Hashimoto, K. Tsukahara, and T. Komatsu, “ Impacts of recent climate change on flood disaster and preventive measures,” J. of Disaster Research, Vol.3, No.2, pp. 131-141, 2008.
  4. [4] Y. Hirabayashi and S. Kanae, “ First estimate of the future global population at risk of flooding,” Hydrological Research Letters, Vol.3, pp. 6-9, 2009.
  5. [5] M. Maki, T. Maesaka, A. Kato, D. S. Kim, and K. Iwanami, “Developing a composite rainfall map based on observations from an X-band polarimetric radar network and conventional C-band radar,” Indian J. Radio Space Phys., Vol.41, pp. 461-470, 2012.
  6. [6] I. Strangeways, “Improving precipitation measurement,” Int. J. Climatol., Vol.24, pp. 1443-1460, 2004.
  7. [7] M. Allegretti, S. Bertoldo, A. Prato, C. Lucianaz, O. Rorato, R. Notarpietro, and M. Gabella, “X-band mini radar for observing and monitoring rainfall events,” Atmos. Climate Sci., Vol.2, pp. 290-297, 2012.
  8. [8] V. T. Chow, D. R. Maidment, and L. W. Mays, Applied Hydrology, McGrawHill, New York, 1988.
  9. [9] S. P. C., M. Maki, S. Shimizu, T. Maesaka, D. Kim, D. Lee, and H. Iida, “Correction of reflectivity in the presence of partial beam blockage over a mountainous region using X-band dual polarization radar,” J. Hydrometeor., Vol.14, pp. 744-764, 2013.
  10. [10] K. Price, S. T. Purucker, S. R. Kraemer, J. E. Babendreier, and C. D. Knightes, “Comparison of radar and gauge precipitation data in watershed models across varying spatial and temporal scales,” Hydrol. Processes, Vol.28, pp. 3505-3520, 2014.
  11. [11] R. F. Adler, G. J. Huffman, A. Chang, R. Ferraro, P. Xie, J. Janowiak, B. Rudolf, U. Schneider, S. Curtis, D. Bolvin, A. Gruber, J. Susskind, P. Arkin, and E. Nelkin, “The version-2 Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Monthly precipitation analysis (1979-present),” J. Hydrometeor., Vol.4, pp. 1147-1167, 2003.
  12. [12] A. K. Mitra, M. D. Gupta, S. V. Singh, and T. N. Krishnamurti, “Daily rainfall for the Indian monsoon region from merged satellite and rain gauge values: Large scale analysis from real time data,” J. Hydrometeor., Vol.4, pp. 769-781, 2003.
  13. [13] Y. Suzuki, E. Nakakita, M. Hasebe, and S. Ikebuchi, “Study on rainfall-topography relationships in Japan with regard to the spatial scale of mountains slopes,” Proc. 6th Int. Symp. on Hydrological Applications of Weather Radar, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 8, 2004.
  14. [14] Z. Sokol and V. Bliznak, “Areal distribution and precipitation-altitude relationship of heavy short-term precipitation in the Czech Republic in the warm part of the year,” Atmos. Res., Vol. 94, pp. 652-662, 2009.
  15. [15] S. Y. Matrosov, K. A. Clark, B. E. Martner, and A. Tokay, “ X-band polarimetric radar measurements of rainfall,” J. Appl. Meteor., Vol.41, pp. 941-952, 2002.
  16. [16] M. Maki, K. Iwanami, R. Misumi, S.-G. Park, H. Moriwaki, K. Maruyama, I. Watabe, D.-I. Lee, M. Jang, H.-K. Kim, V. N. Bringi, and H. Uyeda, “Semi-operational rainfall observations with X-band multi-parameter radar,” Atmos. Sci. Lett., Vol.6, pp. 12-18, 2005.
  17. [17] S. Y. Matrosov, D. E. Kingsmill, B. E. Martner, and F. M. Ralph, “The utility of X-band polarimetric radar for quantitative estimates of rainfall parameters,” J. Hydrometeor., Vol.6, pp. 248-262, 2005.
  18. [18] M. N. Anagnostou, J. Kalogiros, E. N. Anagnostou, and A. Papadopoulos, “Experimental results on rainfall estimation in complex terrain with a mobile X-band polarimetric weather radar,” J. Atmos. Res., Vol.94, pp. 579-595, 2009.
  19. [19] S.-G. Park, M. Maki, K. Iwanami, V. N. Bringi, and V. Chandrasekar, “Correction of radar reflectivity and differential reflectivity for rain attenuation at X band. Part II: Evaluation and application,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., Vol.22, pp. 1633-1655, 2005.
  20. [20] I. Sugiura, “Very-short-range forecast of precipitation in Japan,” 14th annual WRF users’s workshop, Colorado, USA, 2013.
  21. [21] T. Maesaka, M. Maki, K. Iwanami, S. Tsuchiya, K. Kieda, and A. Hoshi “Operational rainfall estimation by X-band MP radar network in MLIT, Japan,” 35th Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Pittsburgh, USA, 2011.
  22. [22] M. Nakamura, S. Kaneda, Y. Wakazuki, C. Muroi, A. Hashimoto, T. Kato, A. Noda, M. Yoshizaki, and K. Yasunaga, “Effects of Global Warming on Heavy Rainfall During the Baiu Season Projected by a Cloud-System-Resolving Model,” J. of Disaster Research, Vol.3, No.1, pp. 15-24, 2008.
  23. [23] K. Toda, “Urban Flooding and Measures,” J. of Disaster Research, Vol.2, No.3, pp. 143-152, 2007.
  24. [24] A. Tominaga, “Lessons learned from Tokai heavy rainfall,” J. of Disasster Research, Vol.2, No.1, pp. 50-53, 2007.
  25. [25] S. Kawai and K. Ashida, “Flood Disaster in the Yura River in 2004 and 2013,” J. of Disaster Research, Vol.9, No.6 pp. 1088-1100, 2014.
  26. [26] DRI Survey Report No.44, 2015 (in Japanese).
  27. [27] S. P. C. and M. Maki, “Application of a modified digital elevation model method to correct radar reflectivity of X-band dual-polarization radars in mountainous regions,” Hydrological Research Letters, Vol.8, pp. 77-83, 2014.
  28. [28] Y. Hisada, Y. Sugihara, and N. Matsunaga, “Meteorological characteristics of local heavy rainfall in the Fukuoka plain,” J. of Disaster Research, Vol.10, No.3, pp. 429-435, 2015.
  29. [29] A. Basist, G. D. Bell, and V. Meentemeyer, “Statistical relationships between topography and precipitation patterns,” J. Clim., Vol.7, pp. 1305-1315, 1994.
  30. [30] K. Dairaku, S. Emori, and T. Oki, “Rainfall amount, intensity, duration, and frequency relationships in the Mae Chaem watershed in southeast Asia,” J. Hydrometeor., Vol.5, pp. 458-470, 2004.
  31. [31] A. Kato and M. Maki, “Localized heavy rainfall near Zoshigaya, Tokyo, Japan on 5 August 2008 observed by X-band polarimetirc radar: Preliminary analysis,” SOLA, Vol.5, pp. 89-92, 2009.
  32. [32] D.-S. Kim and M. Maki, “Validation of composite polarimetric parameters and rainfall rates from an X-band dual-polarization radar network in the Tokyo metropolitan area,” Hydrological Research Letters, Vol.6, pp. 76-81, 2012.
  33. [33] http://www.data.jma.go.jp/fcd/yoho/data/hibiten/2015/201509.pdf [Accessed May 30, 2016].

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, IE9,10,11, Opera.

Last updated on Oct. 20, 2017