JDR Vol.11 No.1 pp. 4-14
doi: 10.20965/jdr.2016.p0004


Method for Real-Time Evaluation of Discharge Rate of Volcanic Ash – Case Study on Intermittent Eruptions at the Sakurajima Volcano, Japan –

Masato Iguchi

Sakurajima Volcano Research Center, Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University
1722-19 Sakurajima-Yokoyama, Kagoshima 891-1419, Japan

September 6, 2015
January 5, 2016
February 1, 2016
volcanic ash, discharge rate, volcanic tremor, ground deformation, Sakurajima

A method for evaluating the volcanic ash discharge rate by using seismic and ground deformation signals is proposed to obtain this rate in real time for southern Kyushu’s Sakurajima volcano. This volcano repeats vulcanian eruptions accompanying significant ground deformation showing deflation and nonvulcanian type eruptions that emit the minor emissions of volcanic ash associated with volcanic tremors but without significant ground deformation. We examined ground deformation and seismic amplitude as they relate to monthly sums of volcanic ash weight ejected from craters. We found that in monthly sums, both deflation ground deformation and the amplitude of volcanic tremors correlate positively with the weight of ejected volcanic ash. A linear combination of terms for ground deformation, seismic amplitude and a correction factor correlates better than single parameter of deflation or seismic amplitude with volcanic ash weight. The linear combination provides the volcanic ash discharge rate in quasi-real time and the total amount of volcanic ash distributed over a wide area immediately after a volcanic eruption ends.

Cite this article as:
M. Iguchi, “Method for Real-Time Evaluation of Discharge Rate of Volcanic Ash – Case Study on Intermittent Eruptions at the Sakurajima Volcano, Japan –,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.11, No.1, pp. 4-14, 2016.
Data files:
  1. [1]  C. Bonadonna and B. F. Houghton, “Total grain-size distribution and volume of ash fall deposits,” Bull. Volcanol., Vol.67, pp. 441-456, 2005.
  2. [2]  E. E. Campbell, “747-400 airplane damage survey following a volcanic ash encounter,” First International Symposium on Volcanic Ash and Aviation Safety, US Geological Survey Circular 1065, p. 14, 1991.
  3. [3]  P. T. Delaney and D. F. McTigue, “Volume of magma accumulation or withdrawal estimated from surface uplift or subsidence, with application to the 1960 collapse of Kilauea Volcano,” Bull. Volcanol., Vol.56, pp. 417-424, 1994.
  4. [4]  T. Hagiwara, S. Omote, S. Murauchi, K. Akashi, Z. Yamada, and Zyuhei, “The Eruption of Mt. Sakura-Zima in 1946,” Bull. Earthq. Res. Inst., Univ. Tokyo, Vol.24, pp. 143-159, 1948 (in Japanese with English abstract).
  5. [5]  M. Iguchi, T. Tameguri, Y. Ohta, S. Ueki, and S. Nakao, “Characteristics of volcanic activity at Sakurajima volcano’s Showa crater during the period 2006 to 2011,” Bull. Volcanol. Soc. Japan, Vol.58, pp. 115-135, 2013.
  6. [6]  K. Ishihara, “Pressure sources and induced ground deformation associated with explosive eruptions at an andesitic volcano: Sakurajima volcano, Japan,” Magma Transport and Storage (M. P. Ryan ed), pp. 335-356, John Wiley & Sons, 1990.
  7. [7]  K. Ishihara and T. Kobayashi, “Recent Volcanic Activity at Sakurajima Volcano,” Bull. Volcanol. Soc. Japan, Vol.33, pp. 269-271, 1988 (in Japanese).
  8. [8]  D. E. Jessop, K. Kelfoun, P. Labazuy, A. Mangeney, O. Roche, J.-L. Tillier, M. Trouillet, and G. Thibault, “LiDAR derived morphology of the 1993 Lascar pyroclastic flow deposits, and implication for flow dynamics and rheology,” Jour. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., Vols.245-246, pp. 81-97, 2012.
  9. [9]  K. Kamo and K. Ishihara, “A preliminary experiment on automated judgment of the stages of eruptive activity using tiltmeter records at Sakurajima, Japan,” Volcanic Hazards (J. H. Latter, ed), IAVCEI Proceedings in Volcanology 1, pp. 585-598, Springer-Verlag, 1989.
  10. [10]  S. R. McNutt, “Seismic monitoring and eruption forecasting of volcanoes: a review of the state-of-the-art and case histories,” Monitoring and mitigation of volcanic hazards (Scarpa and Tilling, eds), pp. 99-146, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994.
  11. [11]  I. Miyagi, J. Itoh, H. Shinohara, and JMA, “Re-activation process of Showa volcanic vent at Sakurajima volcano in 2008: Evidence from volcanic ash,” Bull. Volcanol. Soc. Japan, Vol.55, pp. 21-39, 2010 (in Japanese with English abstract).
  12. [12]  K. Mogi, “Relation between the eruptions of various volcanoes and the deformations of the ground surface around them,” Bull. Earthq. Res. Inst., Univ. Tokyo, Vol.38, pp. 99-134, 1958.
  13. [13]  C. C. Newhall and S. Self, “Volcanic explosivity index (VEI): an estimate of explosive magnitude for historical volcanism,” J. Geophys. Res., Vol.87, No.C2, pp. 1231-1238, 1982.
  14. [14]  S. Onodera and K. Kamo, “Aviation safety measures for ash clouds in Japan and the system of Japan Air Lines for monitoring eruptions at Sakurajima volcano,” US Geological Survey bulletin 2047, pp. 213-219, 1993.
  15. [15]  Z. J. Przedpelski and T. J. Casadevall, “Impact of volcanic ash from 15 December 1989 Redoubt volcano eruption on GE CF6-80C2 turbofan engines,” US Geological Survey bulletin 2047, pp. 129-135, 1993.
  16. [16]  D. M. Pyle, “The thickness, volume and grain size of tephra fall deposits,” Bull. Volcanol., Vol.51, pp. 1-15, 1989.
  17. [17]  W. I. Rose, S. Bonis, R. E. Stoiber, M. Keller, and T. Bickford, “Studies of volcanic ash from two recent Central American eruptions,” Bull. Volcanol., Vol.37, pp. 338-364, 1973.
  18. [18]  S. Self, R. Gertisser, T. Thordarson, M. R. Rampino, and J. A. Wolff, “Magma volume, volatile emissions, and stratospheric aerosols from the 1815 eruption of Tambora,” Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol.31, L20608, doi:10.1029/2004GL020925, 2004.
  19. [19]  Y. Tajima, K. Tamura, T. Yamakoshi, A. Tsune, and S. Tsurumoto, “Ellipse-approximated isopach maps for estimating ashfall volume at Sakurajima volcano,” Bull. Volcano. Soc. Japan, Vol.58, pp. 291-306, 2013.
  20. [20]  Y. Tamura, T. Sato, M. Ooe, and M. Ishiguro, “A procedure for tidal analysis with a Bayesian information criterion,” Geophys. J. Int., Vol.104, pp. 507-516, 1991.
  21. [21]  H. L. Tanaka and K. Yamamoto, “Numerical simulation of volcanic plume dispersal from Usu volcano in Japan on 31 March 2000 using PUFF model,” Earth Planets Space, pp. 743-752, 2002.
  22. [22]  H. Tsuya and T. Minakami, “Minor activity of volcano Sakura-zima in October, 1939,” Bull. Earthq. Res. Inst., Univ. Tokyo, Vol.18, pp. 318-339, 1940 (in Japanese with English abstract).
  23. [23]  P. W. Webley, J. Dehn, J. Lovick, K. G. Dean, J. E. Bailey, and L. Valcic, “Near-real-time volcanic ash cloud detection: Experiences from the Alaska Volcano Observatory,” Jour. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., Vol.186, pp. 79-90, 2009.

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, IE9,10,11, Opera.

Last updated on Jan. 19, 2019