JDR Vol.9 No.3 pp. 303-310
doi: 10.20965/jdr.2014.p0303


Precursory Phenomena Possibly Related to the 2011 M9.0 Off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake

Toshiyasu Nagao*, Yoshiaki Orihara**, and Masashi Kamogawa**

*Earthquake Prediction Research Center (EPRC), Tokai University, Orido, Shimizu, Shizuoka 424-0902, Japan

**Department of Physics, Tokyo Gakugei University, Koganei-shi, Tokyo 184-8501, Japan

January 16, 2014
March 28, 2014
June 1, 2014
earthquake precursor, critical phenomena, electromagnetic phenomena, ionosphere
In this article, we review papers on precursors for the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. We discuss phenomena such as seismic, geodetic, electromagnetic, ionospheric, and macroscopic anomalies for which time scales range from a few decades to a few hours, from long-, mid- to short-term precursors. Of these, we treat ionospheric anomalies in the greatest detail. Through our review, we found that many “signals” preceded the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake.
Cite this article as:
T. Nagao, Y. Orihara, and M. Kamogawa, “Precursory Phenomena Possibly Related to the 2011 M9.0 Off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.9 No.3, pp. 303-310, 2014.
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