Paper:

# Noise Reduction with Fuzzy Inference Based on Generalized Mean and Singleton Input–Output Rules: Toward Fuzzy Rule Learning in a Unified Inference Platform

## Kiyohiko Uehara^{*} and Kaoru Hirota^{**}

^{*}Ibaraki University

4-12-1 Nakanarusawa-cho, Hitachi, Ibaraki 316-8511, Japan

5 South Zhongguancun Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100081, China

A method is proposed for reducing noise in learning data based on fuzzy inference methods called α-GEMII (α-level-set and generalized-mean-based inference with the proof of two-sided symmetry of consequences) and α-GEMINAS (α-level-set and generalized-mean-based inference with fuzzy rule interpolation at an infinite number of activating points). It is particularly effective for reducing noise in randomly sampled data given by singleton input–output pairs for fuzzy rule optimization. In the proposed method, α-GEMII and α-GEMINAS are performed with singleton input–output rules and facts defined by fuzzy sets (non-singletons). The rules are initially set by directly using the input–output pairs of the learning data. They are arranged with the facts and consequences deduced by α-GEMII and α-GEMINAS. This process reduces noise to some extent and transforms the randomly sampled data into regularly sampled data for iteratively reducing noise at a later stage. The width of the regular sampling interval can be determined with tolerance so as to satisfy application-specific requirements. Then, the singleton input–output rules are updated with consequences obtained in iteratively performing α-GEMINAS for noise reduction. The noise reduction in each iteration is a deterministic process, and thus the proposed method is expected to improve the noise robustness in fuzzy rule optimization, relying less on trial-and-error-based progress. Simulation results demonstrate that noise is properly reduced in each iteration and the deviation in the learning data is suppressed considerably.

*J. Adv. Comput. Intell. Intell. Inform.*, Vol.23, No.6, pp. 1027-1043, 2019.

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