JACIII Vol.21 No.2 pp. 293-300
doi: 10.20965/jaciii.2017.p0293


Pilot Study on an Acoustic Measurements System of the Swallowing Function Using an Acoustic-Emissions Microphone

Manabu Chikai*,†, Ayuko Kamiyanagi**, Kenta Kimura*, Yoshikazu Seki*, Hiroshi Endo*, Yuka Sumita**, Hisashi Taniguchi**, and Shuichi Ino*

*National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
1-1-1 Central 6, Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566, Japan
**Tokyo Medical and Dental University
1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8549, Japan
Corresponding author

August 31, 2016
November 2, 2016
Online released:
March 15, 2017
March 20, 2017
swallowing, non-invasive measurement, aspiration pneumonitis, screening, bedside

The goal of this study is to evaluate the swallowing functions of people with dysphagia using an acoustic microphone sensor. As a basic investigation towards this end, we measured the swallowing sounds using an acoustic emissions microphone sensor (AE sensor), then analyzed the frequency range of the measured signals, and we examined the method for obtaining the necessary information to evaluate the swallowing functions. For the measurement, two types of sensors, i.e., a condenser throat microphone and an AE sensor, were employed to measure the swallowing sounds. The acoustic signals obtained were subjected to spectral analysis using the wavelet transformation, and a comparison was performed between the measurable ranges of the acoustic signals obtained by the AE and the acoustic sensors. The results from the wavelet transformation of the acoustic signals obtained by the AE sensor indicated that acoustic signals generated during swallowing contained frequency information of 3 kHz and higher, which were not measurable with the acoustic sensor used in the experiment. In addition, we proposed a method of evaluating swallowing sounds using a novel approach based on the probability distribution. From the analysis results, it was found that the distance between the theoretical values and the measured values has a high correlation with the sample viscosity. Furthermore, it was found that the data measured with the AE sensor more sensitively reflected the difference in the sample viscosity. We were thus able to demonstrate the possibility of evaluating the swallowing function via the proposed method.

  1. [1] P. E. Marik and D. Kaplan, “Aspiration Pneumonia and Dysphagia in the Elderly,” CHEST, Vol.124, No.1, pp. 328-336, July 2003.
  2. [2] J. E. Morley, “Anorexia, Sarcopenia, and Aging,” Nutrition, Vol.17, No.7-8, pp. 660-663, July 2001.
  3. [3] I. H. Rosenberg, “Summary comments from proceedings of a conference -Epidemiologic and methodologic problems in determining nutritional status of older,” The American J. of Clinical Nutrition, Vol.50, pp. 1231-1233, October 1989.
  4. [4] D. G. Smithard, P. A. O’Neill, C. Park, and J. Morris, “Complications and outcome following acute stroke: does dysphagia matter?,” Stroke, Vol.27, No.7, pp. 1200-1204, July 1996.
  5. [5] G. Mann, G. J. Hankey, and D. Cameron, “Swallowing disorders following acute stroke: prevalence and diagnostic accuracy,” Cerebrovascular diseases, Vol.10, No.5, pp. 380-386, September 2000.
  6. [6] D. G. Smithard, N. C. Smeeton, and C. D. A. Wolfe, “Long-term outcome after stroke: does dysphagia matter?,” Age and Ageing, Vol.36, pp. 90-94, December 2007.
  7. [7] Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, “Patient Survey 2014 (Disease and Injury),” 2014 (in Japanese).
  8. [8] M. Baba and E. Saitoh, “Evaluation of Swallowing Impairment,” NICHIDOKU-IHO, Vol.46, No.1, pp. 17-25, January 2001 (in Japanese).
  9. [9] K. Takahashi, M. E. Groher, and K. Michi. “Methodology for detecting swallowing sounds,” Dysphagia, Vol.9, No.1, Decemver 1994.
  10. [10] K. Takahashi, M. E. Groher, and K. Michi, “Symmetry and reproducibility of swallowing sounds,” Dysphagia, Vol.9, No.3, pp. 168-173, December 1994.
  11. [11] J. Murray, “The Laryngoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing or FEES,” Joseph Murrary,” Manual of Dysphagia Assessment in Adults, Singular Pub. Group, pp. 153-191, 1991.
  12. [12] K. Hirano, K. Takahashi, R. Uyama, and K. Michi, “Evaluation of Accuracy of Cervical Auscultation for Clinical Assessment of Dysphagia,” Japanese J. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Vol.47, No.2, pp. 93-100, February 2001 (in Japanese).
  13. [13] S. Ohyado, “Cervical Ausculation,” Ronen Shika Igaku, Vol.28, No.4, pp. 332-337, April 2013 (in Japanese).
  14. [14] R. Y. Scott and A. G. S. Julie, “An Acoustic Profile of Normal Swallowing,” Dysphagia, Vol.20, pp. 195-209, December 2005.
  15. [15] S. Morinière, M. Boiron, D. Alison, P. Makris, and P. Beutter, “Origin of the Sound Components During Pharyngeal Swallowing in Normal Subjects,” Dysphagia, Vol.23, pp. 267-273, September 2008.
  16. [16] J. A. Y. Chichero and B. E. Murdoch, “Acoustic Signature of the Normal Swallow: Characterization by Age, Gender, and Bolus Volume,” The Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology, Vol.111, No.7, pp. 623-632, July 2002.
  17. [17] Y. Kurihara, K. Watanabe, K. Kobayashi, and H. Tanaka, “Swallow Ability Evaluation Method by Lead Time, Geniohyoid Muscle and Thyrohyoid Muscle Estimated Using by Photo Sensors in Swallowing,” The Japanese J. of Ergonomics, Vol.45, No.2, pp. 110-117, April 2009 (in Japanese).
  18. [18] T. Nakamura, T. Kusuhara, and Y. Yamamoto, “Measurement of Neck Electrical Impedance and Evaluation of Swallowing Function,” J. of Japanese Society of Biorheology, Vol.19, No.3, pp. 10-18, March 2005 (in Japanese).
  19. [19] N. Ohmori, C. Murasawa, J. Aizawa, Y. Koyama, H. Kurita, H. Yoshida, and M. Kamijo, “The measurement of swallowing by using electromyography electrodes attached to a sheet for food evaluation,” IEICE Technical Report, Welfare Information technology, Vol.114, No.447, pp. 53-58, Febrary 2015 (in Japanese).
  20. [20] T. Okitsu, M. Arita, S. Sonoda, T. Ota, F. Hotta, T. Honda, and N. Chino, “The Surface Electromyography on Suprahyoid Muscles during Swallowing,” The Japanese J. of Rehabilitation Medicine, Vol.35, No.4, pp. 241-244, October 1998 (in Japanese).
  21. [21] C. J. Hellier, “Chapter 10: Acoustic Emission Testing,” Charles J. Hellier (Eds.), Handbook of Nondestructive Evaluation, McGraw-Hill Companies, pp. 10.1-10.39, September 2012.
  22. [22] T. Tasaki and M. Goto, “Some Uses of Probability Plotting in Data Analysis,” The Japanese J. of Behaviormetrics, Vol.12, No.1, pp. 29-34, July 1984 (in Japanese).
  23. [23] J. Fujitani, R. Uyama, H. Ohgoshi, J. Kayashita, A. Kojo, K. Takahashi, H. Maeda, I. Fujishima, and K. Ueda, “Japanese Dysphagia Diet 2013 by the JSDR dysphagia diet committee,” Dysphagia Rehabilitation, Vol.17, No.3, pp. 255-267, March 2013 (in Japanese).
  24. [24] A. Nakane, H. Tohara, Y. Ouchi, S. Goto, and H. Uematsu, “Videofluoroscopic Kinesiologic Analysis of Swallowing: Defining a Standard Plane,” J. of Medical and Dental Sciences. Vol.53, pp. 7-15, March 2006.
  25. [25] M. Yamashita, K. Yokoyama, Y. Takei, N. Furuya, Y. Nakamichi, Y. Ihara, K. Takahashi, and M. E. Groher, “Acoustic characteristics of voluntary expiratory sounds after swallow for detecting dysphagia,” J. of Oral Rehabilitation, Vol.41, No.9, pp. 667-674, May 2014.
  26. [26] J. M. Dudik, I. Jestrovic, B. Luan, J. L. Coyle, and E. Sejdic, “A comparative analysis of swallowing accelerometry and sounds during saliva swallows,” BioMedical Engineering OnLine, Vol.14, No.3, January 2015.
  27. [27] J. A. Y. Cichero, and B. E. Murdoch, “Acoustic Signature of the Normal Swallow: Characterization by Age, Gender, and Bolus Volume,” The Annals of Otology, Vol.111, No.7, pp. 623-632, July 2002.

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, IE9,10,11, Opera.

Last updated on Mar. 28, 2017