Automatic Pin Counting System for the Blind Bowling
Tsukuba University of Technology
4-12-7 Kasuga, Tsukuba City, Ibaraki 305-8521, Japan
Tenpin bowling is an adaptive sport for persons with severe visual impairment, including blind persons with adequate support. It is known as “Blind bowling.” To play it, blind players are allowed to use a guide rail, and sighted assistants support the players by informing them of scores, ball trajectories, positions of remaining pins, etc. However, these blind players desire to play without the support of sighted assistants. Therefore, to solve this need, an automatic pin counting system was developed as an initial step. The system detects the number of remaining pins and positions using simple image processing, and communicates the information utilizing a speech synthesizer. Evaluation of the system showed that it was sufficient to assist the blind player’s practice. Moreover, an unexpected effect was found: all blind persons who take part in the game are able to enjoy whole games. This is because the system continuously announces to everyone present, the remaining pins of the targeted blind player, as well as every other player. As a consequence, the system helps the blind player, both when bowling alone, and when enjoying a game with other participants.
-  “Tenpin Bowling – General Information,” http://www.ibsasport.org/ newline sports/tenpin-bowling/ [Accessed Nov. 25, 2016].
-  N. Sato, “The current situation of blind ten pin bowling,” Annual report of Nihon University School of Dentistry, Vol.33, pp. 125-133, 2005.
-  “IBSA Classification Rules and Procedures Reviced Janualy 2012,” http://www.ibsasport.org/documents/files/68-1-IBSA- Classification-Rules-and-Procedures.pdf [Accessed Nov. 25, 2016].
-  H. Hase, H. Tanaka, C. Nishikata, Y. Matsubara, K. Nozaki, et al., “A support system allowing visually challenged to play flying disc,” Japanese J. of Adapted Sport Science, Vol.2, No.1, pp. 59-69, 2004.
-  Y. Miyajima, K. Murasaki, R. Izuhara, and H. Nagase, “Development of aerobics study support system that uses motion capture for visually handicapped person,” Society for Design and Art Fusing with Science and Technology, Vol.51, pp. 48-49, 2009.
-  M. Kobayashi, “Blind Bowling Support System Which Detects a Number of Remaining Pins and a Ball Trajectory,” Computers Helping People with Special Needs, Vol.8547 of the series Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 283-288, 2014.
-  M. Kobayashi, “A system to tell positions of remaining pins to a blind bowling player,” IEICE-WIT2013-88, Vol.113, No.481, Vol.2, No.1, pp. 117-120, 2013.
-  OpenCV Programming Book Seisaku-Team, “OpenCV Programing Book,” Mainichi Communications, Co., Ltd., 2009.