Evaluation of Virtual Tactile Dots on Touchscreens in Map Reading: Perception of Distance and Direction
Tetsuya Watanabe*, Hirotsugu Kaga**, and Tsubasa Yagi***
*Faculty of Engineering, Niigata University
2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2181, Japan
**Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University
2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2181, Japan
***NEC Solution Innovators, Ltd.
1-18-7 Shinkiba, Koto-ku, Tokyo 136-8627 Japan
In order to assist blind people in using a flat touchscreen, “virtual” tactile dots which feedback either of or both speech and vibration when touched have been proposed. In this paper, we investigated their effectiveness in map reading application. We conducted two experiments with eight blind participants in which participants perceived the distance and direction between two virtual tactile dots. Their results show that the perception of distance and direction by virtual tactile dots was accurate enough. However, the search time for these dots was significantly longer than that for real tactile dots. This search time issue made us conclude that the reading and vibrating tactile map is not practical.
-  Mobile Contents Forum, “Smart Phone White Paper 2015,” Impress R&D, Tokyo, 2015.
-  E. Schafer, “Dot Matrix Display – An interactive system for graphics and text,” Pin, No.15, pp. 68-73, 1994.
-  T. Volkel, G. Weber, and U. Baumann, “Tactile graphics revised: The novel BrailleDis 9000 pin-matrix device with multitouch input,” 11th Int. Conf. on Computers Helping People with Special Needs: ICCHP 2008, LNCS 5105, pp. 835-842, 2008.
-  M. Ivanchev, F. Zinke, and U. Lucke, “Pre-journey visualization of travel routes for the blind on refreshable interactive tactile display,” 14th Int. Conf. on Computers Helping People with Special Needs: ICCHP 2014, Part II, LNCS 8548, pp. 81-88, 2014.
-  T. Watanabe, T. Yamaguchi, and K. Minatani, “A survey on the use of personal computers and the Internet among blind and visually impaired people in 2013,” IEICE Technical Report, Vol.114, No.217, pp. 25-30, 2014.
-  S. Choi and K. Kuchenbecker, “Vibrotactile display: perception, technology, and application,” Proc. IEEE, Vol.101, No.9, pp. 2093-2104, 2013.
-  O. Metatla, F. Martin, T. Stockman, and N. Bryan-Kinns, “Non-visual menu navigation: the effect of an audio-tactile display,” Proc. BCS HCI 2014, 2014.
-  B. Leporini and S. Chiti, “Investigating the use of vibro-tactile feedback for mobile interaction by blind users: the numeric keypad case,” CHI 2013 Mobile Accessibility Workshop, 2013.
-  C. Jayant, C. Acuario, W. A. Johnson, J. Hollier, and R. E. Ladner, “VBraille: Haptic Braille perception using a touch-screen and vibration on mobile phones,” Proc. ASSETS ’10, 2010.
-  D. Ternes and K. E. MacLean, “Desgning large sets of haptic icons with rythm,” EuroHaptics 2008, Vol.5024, pp. 199-208, 2008.
-  H. Nicolau, K. Montague, T. Guerreiro, A. Rodorigues, and V. L. Hanson, “HoliBraille: Multipoint vibrotactile feedback on mobile devices,” Proc. W4A 2015, May 2015.
-  Create System Development Co., Ltd., DocumentTalkerTouchMap, http://www.createsystem.co.jp/DTalkerAndroidTouchMap.html [Accessed May 18, 2016].
-  Y. Sato, “Psychology of the Blind and Visually Impaired,” Gakugei tosho, Tokyo, 1988.
-  P. Duran and S. Tufenkjian, “Tactile-kinesthetic methods for measuring length used by congenitally blind children,” Perceptual and Motor Skills, Vol.28, pp. 395-400, 1969.
-  M. Hollins and A. K. Goble, “Perception of the length of voluntary movements,” Somatosensory Research, Vol.5, No.4, pp. 335-348, 1988.
-  A. Kumazaki, K. Terada, and A. Ito, “Integration of cutaneous and proprioceptive sensation on human perception of haptic length,” IEICE Technical Report, Vol.105, No.358, pp. 101-106, 2005.
-  H. Wang, J. Wu, and M. Kitazawa, “Difference of human tactile lenghth perception between two and three finger grasping,” Trans. JSME (C), Vol.76, No.764, pp. 152-157, 2010.
-  B. G. Green, “The perception of distance and location for dual tactile pressures,” Perception & Psychophysics, Vol.31, No.4, pp. 315-323, 1982.
-  R. W. Cholewiak, “The perception of tactile distance: Influences of body site, space, and time,” Perception, Vol.28, pp. 851-875, 1999.
-  B. T. Gleeson, S. K. Horschel, and W. R. Provancher, “Perception of direction for applied tangential skin displacement: Effects of speed, displacement and repetition,” IEEE Trans. Haptics, Vol.3, No.3, pp. 177-188, 2010.
-  D. V. Keyson and A. J. M. Houtsma, “Directional sensitivity to a tactile point stimulus moving across the fingerpad,” Perception & Psychophysics, Vol.57, No.5, pp. 738-744, 1995.
-  G. Placencia, M. Rahimi, and B. Khoshnevis, “Effects of distance and direction on tangential tactile perception of the index finger pad,” Robotica, Vol.31, pp. 679-685, 2013.
-  M. Zampini, C. Harris, and C. Spence, “Effect of posture change on tactile perception: impaired direction discrimination performance with interleaved fingres,” Experimental Brain Research, Vol.166, No.3-4, pp. 498-508, 2005.
-  K. Ishibashi, T. Kabata, T. Oda, K. Watanabe, T. Watanabe, Y. Takaoka, and S. Kita, “Easy detectable symbol’s size in tactile maps: A study with persons familiar and unfamiliar with Braille,” Japanese J. Vision Rehabilitation, Vol.2, No.2, pp. 1-10, 2013.
-  Section of Braille Production, Japan Braille Library, “Introduction to Tactile Graphics for Braille Transcription,” 2nd Edition, Japan Braille Library, Tokyo, 1988.
-  J. Rowell and S. Ungar, “Feeling our way: tactile map user requirements – a survey,” Proc. 22nd Int. Cartographic Conf., A Coruna, Spain July 2005.
-  T. Hashimoto and T. Watanabe, “A Study on the Factors which Affect the Expansion of Tactile Symbols on Swell Paper – The Effect of the Position and Area of Tactile Symbols and the heat Setting –,” IEICE Technical Report, Vol.114, No.512, pp. 79-82, March 2015.