JACIII Vol.15 No.1 pp. 13-20
doi: 10.20965/jaciii.2011.p0013


Efficient Optimization Using Experimental Queries: A Peak-Search Algorithm for Efficient Load-Pull Measurements

Charles Baylis*1, Lawrence Dunleavy*2, Steven Lardizabal*3,
Robert J. Marks II*1, and Alberto Rodriguez*4

*1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Baylor University, Waco, TX, USA

*2Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA

*3Raytheon RF Components, Andover, MA, USA

*4ITT Corporation, Palm Harbor, FL, USA

September 20, 2009
September 6, 2010
January 20, 2011
load pull, steepest ascent, power, microwave, transistor

In the process of hardware optimization, physical queries requiring laboratory experiments are often necessary. This is similar to optimization using software where queries are made to a computer model. In both the laboratory optimization and optimization using computer models, queries come at a cost: laboratory time or computer time. Finding efficient searches using a small number of queries on average is therefore motivated. In this paper, techniques used in computer search are shown to be transparently applicable to certain instances of hardware optimization. The hardware example presented is a load-pull peaksearch algorithm for power amplifier load-impedance optimization. The successful search shown in this paper allows high-resolution measurement of the maximum power with a significant reduction in the number of measured reflection-coefficient states. The use of computationally intelligent procedures for reducing time costs in design optimization using hardware has significant potential applications in a number of iterative experimental procedures performed in the laboratory.

Cite this article as:
Charles Baylis, Lawrence Dunleavy, Steven Lardizabal,
Robert J. Marks II, and Alberto Rodriguez, “Efficient Optimization Using Experimental Queries: A Peak-Search Algorithm for Efficient Load-Pull Measurements,” J. Adv. Comput. Intell. Intell. Inform., Vol.15, No.1, pp. 13-20, 2011.
Data files:
  1. [1] C. Baylis, S. Lardizabal, and L. Dunleavy, “A Fast Sequential Load-Pull Algorithm Implemented to Find Maximum Output Power,” 2006 IEEE Wireless and Microwave Technology Conf. (WAMICON 2006), Clearwater, Florida, December 2006.
  2. [2] The MathWorks, Inc., Natick, Massachusetts 01760-2098.
  3. [3] D. Qiao, R. Molfino, S. Lardizabal, B. Pillans, P. Asbeck, and G. Jerinic, “An Intelligently Controlled RF Power Amplifier with a Reconfigurable MEMS-Varactor Tuner,” IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol.53, No.3, Part 2, pp. 1089-1095, March 2005.
  4. [4] S. Perlow, “New Algorithms for the Automated Microwave Tuner Test System,” RCA Review, Vol.46, pp. 341-355, September 1985.
  5. [5] A. P. de Hek, “A Novel Fast Search Algorithm for an Active Load-Pull Measurement System,” GaAs Symposium, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1998.
  6. [6] P. Copalu and P. Dangprasert, “Hybrid Genetic Algorithms: Modeling and Application to the Quadratic Assignment Problem,” Assumption University J. of Technology, Vol.5, No.4, April 2002.
  7. [7] D. Wilde, “Optimum Seeking Methods,” Prentice-Hall, 1964.
  8. [8] G. Berghoff, E. Bergeault, B. Huyart, and L. Jallet, “Automated Characterization of HF Power Transistors by Source-Pull and Multi-Harmonic Load-Pull Measurements Based on Six-Port Techniques,” IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol.46, No.12, pp. 2068-2073, December 1998.
  9. [9] Agilent Technologies, Inc., Santa Clara, California 95051.
  10. [10] MauryMicrowave Corporation, 2900 Inland Empire Blvd., Ontario, California 91764.
  11. [11] I. Angelov, H. Zirath, and N. Rorsman, “A New Empirical Nonlinear Model for HEMT and MESFET Devices,” IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol.40, No.12, December 1992.
  12. [12] R. Reed and R. J. Marks II, “Neural Smithing,” (MIT Press), 1999.

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, Opera.

Last updated on Mar. 05, 2021