Integrating Process and Work Breakdown Structure with Design Structure Matrix
Jonathan Lee*, Whan-Yo Deng*, Wen-Tin Lee*,
Shin-Jie Lee*, Kuo-Hsun Hsu**, and Shang-Pin Ma***
*Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan
**Department of Computer and Information Science, National Taichung University, Taichung, Taiwan
***Department of Computer Science and Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan
In software development, project plans document scope, cost, effort, and schedule, guide project managers, and control project execution. Developing a project plan without incorporating how an organization doing things – i.e., organizational culture – may lead to project failure. To ensure stable process performance and to benefit from organizational culture, it is crucial that organizational processes be taken into account in project planning. Organizational processes enable stable process performance across an organization and provide a basis for cumulative, long term benefits to the organization. In proposing a systematic approach that supports bi-directional transformation between processes and the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS), we propose Process2WBS and WBS2Process to assist project managers in project planning with an organization’s set of standard processes. Process2WBS consumes processes and transforms them into a WBS with Design Structure Matrix (DSM) analysis, and WBS2Process transforms the WBS with project-specific information into executable processes expressed in XPDL.
Shin-Jie Lee, Kuo-Hsun Hsu, and Shang-Pin Ma, “Integrating Process and Work Breakdown Structure with Design Structure Matrix,” J. Adv. Comput. Intell. Intell. Inform., Vol.14, No.5, pp. 512-522, 2010.
-  “Work Breakdown Structure “WBS”,”
-  Booz, Allen, and Hamilton, “Earned Value Management Tutorial Module 2, Work Breakdown Structure,” Office of Project Assessment, 2008.
-  NASA 2001, “NASA NPR 9501.2D.,” May 23, 2001.
-  R. A. Radice, N. K. Roth, A. C. O’Hara, Jr., and W. A. Ciarfella, “A Programming Process Architecture,” j-IBM-SYS-J, Vol.24, No.2, pp. 79-90, 1985.
-  D. V. Steward, “The Design Structure System, A Method for Managing the Design of Complex Systems,” IEEE Trans. on Engineering Management, Vol.28, pp. 71-74, 1981.
-  T. R. Browning, “Applying the Design Structure Matrix to System Decomposition and Integration Problems: A Review and New Directions,” IEEE Trans. on Engineering Management, Vol.48, No.3, pp. 292-306, 2001.
-  T. R. Browning and S. D. Eppinger, “Modeling Impacts of Process Architecture on Cost and Schedule Risk in Product Development,” IEEE Trans. on Engineering Management, Vol.49, No.4, pp. 428-442, 2002.
-  A. A. Yassine, D. E. Whiteny, and T. Zambito, “Assessment of Rework Probabilities for Simulating Product Development Processes Using the Design Structure Matrix,” Proc. of the DETC 01: ASME 2001 Int. Design Engineering Technical Conf., Pittsburgh PA, 2001.
-  “XML Process Definition Language “XPDL”,” http://www.wfmc.org/xpdl.html/
-  J. Lee and Y.-Y. Fanjiang, “Modeling Imprecise Requirements with XML,” Information and Software Technology, Vol.45, No.7, pp. 445-460, 2003.
-  J. Lee and K.-H. Hsu, “Modeling Software Architectures with Goals in Virtual University Environment,” Information and Software Technology, Vol.44, No.6, pp. 361-380, 2002.
-  J. Lee, C.-L. Wu, W.-T. Lee, and K.-H. Hsu, “Aspect-Enhanced Goal-Driven Sequence Diagram,” Int. J. of Intelligent Systems, Vol.25, pp. 712-732, 2010.
-  J. Lee and N.-L. Xue, “Analyzing User Requirements by Use Cases, A Goal-Driven Approach,” IEEE Software, Vol.16, No.4, pp. 92-101, 1999.
-  J. Lee, N.-L. Xue and J.-Y. Kuo, “Structuring Requirements Specifications with Goals,” Information and Software Technology, Vol.43, No.2, pp. 121-135, 2001.
-  W.-T. Lee, W.-Y. Deng, J. Lee, and S.-J. Lee, “Change Impact Analysis with a Goal-Driven Traceability-Based Approach,” Int. J. of Intelligent Systems, Vol.25, pp. 878-908, 2010.
-  G. T. Haugan, “Effective Work Breakdown Structures,” Management Concepts, 2001.
-  D. V. Steward, “Partitioning and Tearing Systems of Equations,” J. of the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Series B, Numerical Analysis, Vol.2, No.2, pp. 345-365, 1965.
-  “Application of the Analytical Design Planning Technique to Construction Project Management,” Project Manage. J., Vol.31, pp. 48-59, 2000.
-  S. Austin, A. Baldwin, B. Li, and P. Waskett, “Development of the ADePT Methodology: An Interim Report on the Link IDAC 100 Project,” Loughborough University, Dept. of Civil and Building Engineering, Loughborough, U. K., 1998.
-  S. Austin, A. Baldwin, and A. Newton, “A Data Flow Model to Plan and Manage the Building Design Process,” J. Eng. Des., Vol.7, pp. 3-25, 1996.
-  P. Huovila, L. Koskela, L. Pietilainen, and V.-P. Tanhuanpaa, “Use of the Design Structure Matrix in Construction,” In 3rd Int. Workshop on Lean Construction, Albuquerque, NM, 1995.
-  K. Kahkonen, V.-P. Tanhuanpaa, and S. Leino, “Design Process Analysis, Optimization and Management, XA Practical Tool for the Construction and Engineering Projects,” VTT Building Technology, Finland, 1997.
-  L. Koskela, G. Ballard, and V.-P. Tanhuanpaa, “Toward Lean Design Management,” In 5th Annu. Conf. of the International Group for Lean Construction “IGLC-5,” 1997.
-  “Innovation at the speed of information,” In Harvard Bus. Rev., Vol.79, pp. 149-V158, 2001.
-  S. M. Osborne, “Product Development Cycle Time Characterization Through Modeling of Process Iteration,” M.S. thesis, MIT, Cambridge, MA, 1993.
-  J. Malmstrom, P. Pikosz, and J. Malmqvist, “The Complementary Roles of IDEF0 and DSM for the Modeling of Information Management Processes,” Concurrent Eng.: Res. Applicat., Vol.7, pp. 95-V103, 1999.
-  G. J. Rushton and A. Zakarian, “Modular Vehicle Architectures, A Systems Approach,” In 10th Annu. Int. Symp. of INCOSE, Minneapolis, MN, 2000, pp. 29-35, 2000.
-  M. W. Sequeira, “Use of the Design Structure Matrix in the Improvement of an Automobile Development Process,” M.S. thesis, MIT, Cambridge, MA, 1991.
-  P. J. Clarkson and J. R. Hamilton, “‘Signposting’: A Parameter-Driven Task-Based Model of the Design Process,” Res. Eng. Des., Vol. 12, pp. 18-38, 2000.
-  M. L. Danilovic, “Leadership and Organization of Integration in Product Development,” Ph.D. dissertation, Linkopings Universitet, Linkoping, Sweden, 1999.
-  B. J. Makins and D. W. Miller, “Web-Based Aerospace System Evaluation Software: The Development and Assessment of Conceptual Space Missions,” In Proc. 10th Annu. Int. Symp. of INCOSE, Minneapolis, MN, 2000, pp. 167-174, 2000.
-  M. Nour and J. Scanlan, “Modeling and Simulating Product Development Process,” In Proc. 6th Int. Conf. on Concurrent Enterprising, Toulouse, France, 2000, pp. 111-118, 2000.
-  R. H. Ahmadi, T. A. Roemer, and R. H. Wang, “Structuring Product Development Processes,” Eur. J. Oper. Res., Vol.130, pp. 539-558, 2001.
-  R. D. Pinkett, “Product Development Process Modeling and Analysis Digital Wireless Telephones,” S. M. thesis, MIT, Cambridge, MA, 1998.
-  M. Carrascosa, S. D. Eppinger, and D. E. Whitney, “Using the Design Structure Matrix to Estimate Product Development Time,” In Proc. ASME Des. Eng. Tech. Conf., “Design Automation Conf.,” Atlanta, GA, 1998.
-  C. Bussler, “Workflow Instance Scheduling with Project Management Tools,” 9th Int. Workshop on Database and Expert Systems Applications “DEXA’98,” p. 753, 1998.
-  M. Gnatz, M. Deubler, M. Meisinger, and A. Rausch, “Towards an Integration of Process Modeling and Project Planning,” 5th Int. Workshop on Software Process Simulation and Modeling “ProSim 2004,” pp. 22-31, 2004.
-  L. M. L. Chung and K. C. C. Chan, “Integrating Project Planning and Process Modeling for Software Development,” IEEE Workshop on Application-Specific Software Engineering and Technology, IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, CA, USA, 1999, p. 276, 1999,
-  A. Thibault, A. Siadat, R. Bigot, and P. Martin, “Proposal for Product Process Integration using Classification and Rules,” In EUROCON, 2007. The Int. Conf. on “Computer as a Tool,” 9-12, 2007, pp. 753-758, 2007,
-  A. Bahrami, “Integrated Process Management, From Planning to Work Execution,” In BSN ’05: Proc. of the IEEE EEE05 int. workshop on Business services networks, Hong Kong, IEEE Press, Piscataway, NJ, USA, p. 11, 2005.
This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internationa License.