JACIII Vol.11 No.6 pp. 701-708
doi: 10.20965/jaciii.2007.p0701


GML Topology Data Storage Schema Design

Yuzhen Li, Jianming Lu, Jihong Guan, Mingying Fan,
Ayman Haggag, and Takashi Yahagi

Graduate School of Science and Technology, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522, Japan

December 27, 2006
March 19, 2007
July 20, 2007
GML, topological data, topology scheme, spatial query

Geography Markup Language (GML) was developed to standardize the representation of geographical data in extensible markup language (XML), which facilitates geographical information exchange and sharing. Increasing amounts of geographical data are being presented in GML as its use widens, raising the question of how to store GML data efficiently to facilitate its management and retrieval. We analyze topology data in GML and propose storing nonspatial and spatial data from GML documents in spatial databases (e.g, Oracle Spatial, DB2 Spatial, and PostGIS/PostgreSQL.). We then use an example to analyze the topology relation.

Cite this article as:
Yuzhen Li, Jianming Lu, Jihong Guan, Mingying Fan,
Ayman Haggag, and Takashi Yahagi, “GML Topology Data Storage Schema Design,” J. Adv. Comput. Intell. Intell. Inform., Vol.11, No.6, pp. 701-708, 2007.
Data files:
  1. [1] OpenGIS Consortium, “GML Specifications,”
    available at
  2. [2] Y. Li, J. Li, and S. Zhou, “GML Storage,” A Spatial Database Approach, ER (Workshops), pp. 55-66, 2004.
  3. [3] E. Hoel, S. Menon, and S. Morehouse, “Building Robust Topologies,” In Advances in Spatial and Temporal Databases, Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Spatial and Temporal Databases, SSTD, Santorini Island, Greece, Springer-Verlag Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2750, 2003.
  4. [4] S. Ramage and P. Woodsford, “The Benefits of Topology in the Database,” 2002,
    available at
  5. [5] M. Egenhofer, A. Frank, and J. Jackson, “A Topological Data Model for Spatial Databases,” Design and Implementation of Large Spatial Databases, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 409, pp. 271-286, 1989.
  6. [6] Galdos System Inc., “Developing and Managing GML Application Schemas,” 2003,
    available at
  7. [7] J. E. Corcoles and P. Gonzalez, “A Specification of a Spatial Query Language over GML,” pp. 112-117, 2001.
  8. [8] W. Chung and H.-Y. Bae, “A Specification of a Moving Objects Query Language over GML for Location-Based Services,” In Advanced Web Technologies and Applications: 6th Asia-Pacific Web Conference, APWeb, pp. 788-793, 2004.
  9. [9] J. Guan, S. Zhou, J. Chen, X. Chen, Y. An, W. Yu, R. Wang, and X. Liu, “Ontology-based GML schema matching for information integration,” In: Proceedings of 2nd IEEE International Conference on Machine Learning and Cybernetics, Vol.4, pp. 2240-2245, IEEE CS, Xian, China, November 2003.
  10. [10] Z. Guo, S. Zhou, Z. Xu, and A. Zhou, “G2ST: A Novel Method to Transform GML to SVG,” In: Proceedings of ACM-GIS 2003, ACM Press, November 2003.

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, Opera.

Last updated on Feb. 25, 2021