IJAT Vol.18 No.1 pp. 58-65
doi: 10.20965/ijat.2024.p0058

Research Paper:

Shock Wave Detection for In-Process Depth Measurement in Laser Ablation Using a Photonic Nanojet

Tsutomu Uenohara, Makoto Yasuda, Yasuhiro Mizutani, and Yasuhiro Takaya

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Osaka University
2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan

Corresponding author

June 23, 2023
August 18, 2023
January 5, 2024
laser ablation, in-process measurement, shock wave, photonic nanojet

Three-dimensional micro- and submicrometer-scale structures exhibit unique functions that cannot be obtained with bulk materials. To create such three-dimensional microstructures with high precision and efficiency, we proposed laser ablation using a photonic nanojet. A photonic nanojet is an optical beam with both a small beam diameter and a large depth of focus, which is obtained by irradiating a dielectric microsphere using a laser beam. In this study, we proposed an in-process depth measurement method to improve the machining accuracy of laser ablation using a photonic nanojet. We focused on the propagation characteristics of the shock waves generated during laser ablation. Shock waves were generated at the deepest point of the machining area and reached the microspheres as the pressure decayed, showing that different machining depths exerted different pressures on the microspheres. The microspheres were displaced by the pressure of the shock wave, and the amount of displacement depended on the pressure. Therefore, microspheres can be used as probes for shock wave detection, and the machining depth can be determined by measuring the displacement of microspheres during photonic nanojet machining. In this study, the displacement of a microsphere was measured simultaneously during photonic nanojet machining using a confocal optical system. From the obtained microsphere vibration data, the effect of the shock wave pressure was extracted, and the displacement of the microsphere due to the shock wave was obtained. When the hole depth varied from 155 to 1121 nm, the displacement of the microspheres varied from 0.58 to 0.03 µm. The experimental results show that the displacement of the microspheres vibrated by the shock wave decreased as the machining depth increased. This was due to an increase in the shock wave propagation distance and a decrease in the pressure of the shock wave as the machining depth increased. In conclusion, in-process depth measurements are possible in laser ablation using a photonic nanojet with a microsphere as a probe to detect shock waves.

Cite this article as:
T. Uenohara, M. Yasuda, Y. Mizutani, and Y. Takaya, “Shock Wave Detection for In-Process Depth Measurement in Laser Ablation Using a Photonic Nanojet,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.18 No.1, pp. 58-65, 2024.
Data files:
  1. [1] K. Kumar, H. Duan, R. S. Hegde, S. C. W. Koh, J. N. Wei, and J. K. W. Yang, “Printing Colour at the Optical Diffraction Limit,” Nature Nanotechnology, Vol.7, No.9, pp. 557-561, 2012.
  2. [2] E. Skoulas, A. Manousaki, C. Fotakis, and E. Stratakis, “Biomimetic Surface Structuring Using Cylindrical Vector Femtosecond Laser Beams,” Scientific Reports, Vol.7, No.1, 45114, 2017.
  3. [3] A. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Multifunctional Surfaces Produced by Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” J. of Applied Physics, Vol.117, Issue 3, 033103, 2015.
  4. [4] A. Žukauskas, “Improvement of the Fabrication Accuracy of Fiber Tip Microoptical Components via Mode Field Expansion,” J. of Laser Micro/Nanoengineering, Vol.9, pp. 68-72, 2014.
  5. [5] X.-W. Cao, Q.-D. Chen, L. Zhang, Z.-N. Tian, Q.-K. Li, L. Wang, S. Juodkazis, and H.-B. Sun, “Single-Pulse Writing of a Concave Microlens Array,” Optics Letters, Vol.43, Issue 4, pp. 831-834, 2018.
  6. [6] T. Ishizaki and M. Sakamoto, “Facile Formation of Biomimetic Color-Tuned Superhydrophobic Magnesium Alloy with Corrosion Resistance,” Langmuir, Vol.27, No.6, pp. 2375-2381, 2011.
  7. [7] Y. Liu, L. Moevius, X. Xu, T. Qian, J. M. Yeomans, and Z. Wang, “Pancake Bouncing on Superhydrophobic Surfaces,” Nature Physics, Vol.10, No.7, pp. 515-519, 2014.
  8. [8] J. Lu, C.-V. Ngo, S. C. Singh, J. Yang, W. Xin, Z. Yu, and C. Guo, “Bioinspired Hierarchical Surfaces Fabricated by Femtosecond Laser and Hydrothermal Method for Water Harvesting,” Langmuir, Vol.35, No.9, pp. 3562-3567, 2019.
  9. [9] B. N. Chichkov, C. Momma, S. Nolte, F. Von Alvensleben, and A. Tunnermann, “Femtosecond, Picosecond and Nanosecond Laser Ablation of Solids,” Applied Physics A, Vol.63, No.2, pp. 109-115, 1996.
  10. [10] A. Piqué, R. C. Auyeung, H. Kim, N. A. Charipar, and S. A. Mathews, “Laser 3D Micro-Manufacturing,” J. of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol.49, No.22, 223001, 2016.
  11. [11] T. Uenohara, Y. Takaya, and Y. Mizutani, “Laser Micro Machining Beyond the Diffraction Limit Using a Photonic Nanojet,” CIRP Annals, Vol.66, No.1, pp. 491-494, 2017.
  12. [12] R. A. Rahman, T. Uenohara, Y. Mizutani, and Y. Takaya, “First Step Toward Laser Micromachining Realization by Photonic Nanojet in Water Medium,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.15, No.4, pp. 492-502, 2021.
  13. [13] Z. Chen, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, “Photonic Nanojet Enhancement of Backscattering of Light by Nanoparticles: a Potential Novel Visible-Light Ultramicroscopy Technique,” Optics Express, Vol.12, No.7, pp. 1214-1220, 2004.
  14. [14] W. Gao, H. Haitjema, F. Fang, R. Leach, C. Cheung, E. Savio, and J.-M. Linares, “On-Machine and In-Process Surface Metrology for Precision Manufacturing,” CIRP Annals, Vol.68, No.2, pp. 843-866, 2019.
  15. [15] H. Zhang, F. Zhang, X. Du, G. Dong, and J. Qiu, “Influence of Laser-Induced Air Breakdown on Femtosecond Laser Ablation of Aluminum,” Optics Express, Vol.23, No.2, pp. 1370-1376, 2015.
  16. [16] H. Hu, T. Liu, and H. Zhai, “Comparison of Femtosecond Laser Ablation of Aluminum in Water and in Air by Time-Resolved Optical Diagnosis,” Optics Express, Vol.23, No.2, pp. 628-635, 2015.
  17. [17] Y. Ito, R. Shinomoto, A. Otsu, K. Nagato, and N. Sugita, “Dynamics of Pressure Waves During Femtosecond Laser Processing of Glass,” Optics Express, Vol.27, No.20, pp. 29158-29167, 2019.
  18. [18] T. T. Nguyen, R. Tanabe, and Y. Ito, “Comparative Study of the Eexpansion Dynamics of Laser-Driven Plasma and Shock wave in Inair and Underwater Ablation Regimes,” Optics & Laser Technology, Vol.100, pp. 21-26, 2018.
  19. [19] Z. Rehman, A. Raza, H. Qayyum, S. Ullah, S. Mahmood, and A. Qayyum, “Characterization of Laser-Induced Shock Waves Generated During Infrared Laser Ablation of Copper by the Optical Beam Deflection Method,” Applied Optics, Vol.61, No.29, pp. 8606-8612, 2022.
  20. [20] Z. Wu, N. Zhang, X. Zhu, L. An, G. Wang, and M. Tan, “Timeresolved Shadowgraphs and Morphology Analyses of Aluminum Ablation with Multiple Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Chinese Physics B, Vol.27, No.7, 077901, 2018.
  21. [21] S. Harilal, G. Miloshevsky, P. Diwakar, N. LaHaye, and A. Hassanein, “Experimental and Computational Study of Complex Shockwave Dynamics in Laser Ablation Plumes in Argon Atmosphere,” Physics of Plasmas, Vol.19, No.8, 083504, 2012.

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, Opera.

Last updated on Feb. 19, 2024