Posture Evaluation Based on Forward Kinematics and Inverse Kinematics of Parallel Link Type Machine Tool
Hiroto Tanaka, Yoshitaka Morimoto, Akio Hayashi, and Hidetaka Yamaoka
Kanazawa Institute of Technology
7-1 Ohgigaoka, Nonoichi, Ishikawa 921-8501, Japan
Parallel mechanisms with multiple links have been expected to be used in machining because they are higher in rigidity, accuracy, and output power than series mechanisms, such as industrial robots. However, unlike conventional machine tools, which consist of linear and rotary axes, parallel mechanisms have a large number of error factors. In the parallel link mechanism, there is no guide surface that physically guarantees linearity, and all accuracy is determined by the operating performance of the composite axes. This makes it difficult to identify any error factors. Therefore, a kinematics model is devised, and the behavior of the tool tip is checked by inputting the encoder information during the actual operation of a specific axis. Based on the results, we evaluate the machining characteristics of the target machine tool. The target machine tool in this study is a 5-axis machine tool that combines a 3-DOF parallel mechanism consisting of three linear motion axes and a 2-DOF serial mechanism consisting of two rotary axes. In our previous research, we tried to build a forward kinematics model. Although its prediction accuracy was insufficient, it was possible to actually identify the cause of the defect in the quality of the machined surface using the servo position information of the kinematics machine. However, we have not been able to construct an inverse kinematics model that is suitable for calculating the correction position command value to improve the quality of the machined surface. In this study, based on the shape creation theory, we devise and evaluate the kinematics model of a robotic machine tool that has a parallel mechanism. As a result of comparing the kinematics model with the 3D-CAD model in order to evaluate the accuracy of the former, it was confirmed that the proposed method has high simulation accuracy. Then, machining tests were carried out to evaluate the machining accuracy by measuring, based on proposed kinematics model, the machined surfaces in order to identify the mechanism that affects the texture of the machined surface. In addition, we performed a circle interpolation to confirm the effects of reversing the motion of each drive axis on the behavior of the tool tip. As a result, it is considered that the linear motion axis has a large effect on the behavior of the tool tip on the quadrant glitch of each drive axis. It was also found that the effects of the 1st- and 3rd-axes on the behavior of the tool tip are different from those of the 2nd-axis.
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