single-au.php

IJAT Vol.16 No.4 pp. 448-455
doi: 10.20965/ijat.2022.p0448
(2022)

Paper:

Design and Fabrication of Micro Gripper Using Functional Fluid Power

Yutaka Tanaka*,†, Ryuta Suzuki*, Kazuya Edamura**, and Shinichi Yokota***

*Hosei University
2-33 Ichigaya-Tamachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-0843, Japan

Corresponding author

**New Technology Management Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan

***Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, Japan

Received:
December 11, 2021
Accepted:
January 20, 2022
Published:
July 5, 2022
Keywords:
electro-conjugate fluid, functional fluid, jamming gripper, micro gripper, soft actuator
Abstract

Gripping and holding mechanism of automated systems in manufacturing and distribution industries are required to flexibly accommodate various product shapes. In recent years, the gripping and holding mechanisms using jamming transition have been attracting attention because they can grasp objects of various shapes. The jamming gripping mechanism generally requires a mechanical vacuum pump to adjust the internal pressure of the gripping part, and it is difficult to miniaturize the system. An electro-conjugate fluid (ECF), a type of functional fluid, can generate a strong jet flow by applying a high DC voltage between the positive and negative electrodes. The ECF jet flow has a great potential to realize micro fluid power sources. In this paper, we proposed and prototyped a new type of small gripping and holding mechanism that uses the jet flow generated by the ECF and the jamming of granular material. A prototyped micro gripper had an outer diameter of 14 mm, a total length of 40 mm, and a tip diameter of 10 mm for gripping. A mathematical model of the micro gripper was derived by deformation of an elastic membrane and volume and pressure changes. It was verified by the mathematical model that the supplied pressure of the ECF hydraulic power source was large enough to realize gripping performance of the prototyped jamming gripper. The performance of the prototype micro gripper was numerically and experimentally evaluated the mathematical model. It was experimentally clarified that a maximum holding force of the prototyped jamming gripper was shown under the condition that filling rate of granular material was 50%. It was also clarified that the micro gripper with a built-in vacuum pump using the ECF hydraulic power source had a gripping force of up to 93 mN at an applied DC voltage of 4 kV.

Cite this article as:
Y. Tanaka, R. Suzuki, K. Edamura, and S. Yokota, “Design and Fabrication of Micro Gripper Using Functional Fluid Power,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.16, No.4, pp. 448-455, 2022.
Data files:
References
  1. [1] T. Nishimura, K. Mizushima, Y. Suzuki, T. Tsuji, and T. Watanabe, “Variable-Grasping-Mode Underactuated Soft Gripper with Environmental Contact-Based Operation,” IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, Vol.2, No.2, pp. 1164-1171, doi: 10.1109/LRA.2017.2662086, 2017.
  2. [2] T. Watanabe, K. Yamazaki, and Y. Yokokohji, “Survey of Robotics Manipulation studies Intending Practical Applications in Real Environments – Object Recognition, Soft Robot Hand, and Challenge Program and Benchmarking –,” Advanced Robot., Vol.31, No.19-20, pp. 1114-1132, doi: 10.7210/jrsj.36.338, 2017.
  3. [3] T. Nishimura, Y. Suzuki, T. Tsuji, and T. Watanabe, “Fluid Pressure Monitoring-Based Strategy for Delicate Grasping of Fragile Objects by A Robotic Hand with Fluid Fingertips,” Sensors, Vol.19, No.4, 782, doi:10.1098/rsif.2006.0135, 2019.
  4. [4] T. Takahashi, S. Kikuchi, M. Suzuki, and S. Aoyagi, “Vacuum Gripper Imitated Octopus Sucker – Effect of Liquid Membrane for Absorption –,” Proc. of IEEE Robotics and Automation Society, pp. 2929-2936, 2015.
  5. [5] M. Calisti, M. Giorelli, G. Levy, B. Mazzolai, B. Hochner, C. Laschi, and P. Dario, “An octopus-bioinspired solution to movement and manipulation for soft robots,” Bioinspiration & Biomimetics, Vol.6, No.3, 036002, doi: 10.1088/1748-3182/6/3/036002, 2011.
  6. [6] W. Federle, W. J. P. Barnes, W. Baumgartner, P. Drechsler, and J. M. Smith, “Wet but not Slippery: Boundary Friction in Tree Frog Adhesive Toe Pads,” J. R. Soc. Interface, Vol.3, pp. 689-697, 2006.
  7. [7] Y. Seki, Y. Kuwajima, H. Shigemune, Y. Yamada, and S. Maeda, “Optimization of the Electrode Arrangement and Reliable Fabrication of Flexible EHD Pumps,” J. Robot. Mechatron., Vol.32, No.5, pp. 939-946, 2020.
  8. [8] W. Thongking, A. Wiranata, A. Minaminosono, Z. Mao, and S. Maeda, “Soft Robotic Gripper Based on Multi-Layers of Dielectric Elastomer Actuators,” J. Robot. Mechatron., Vol.33, No.4, pp. 968-974, 2021.
  9. [9] H. Matsuoka, T. Kanda, S. Wakimoto, K. Suzumori, and P. Lambert, “Development of a Rubber Soft Actuator Driven with Gas/Liquid Phase Change,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.10, No.4, pp. 517-524, 2016.
  10. [10] D. Maffiodo and T. Raparelli, “Three-Fingered Gripper with Flexure Hinges Actuated by Shape Memory Alloy Wires,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.11, No.3, pp. 355-360, 2017.
  11. [11] E. Brown, N. Rodenberg, J. Amend, A. Mozeika, E. Steltz, R. M. Zakin, H. Lipson, and M. H. Jaeger, “Universal Robotic Gripper based on the Jamming of Granular Material,” Proc. of the National Academy of Sciences of U.S.A., Vol.107, No.44, pp. 18809-18814, 2010.
  12. [12] G. S. Fitzgerald, G. W. Delaney, and H. David, “A Review of Jamming Actuation in Soft Robotics,” Actuator, Vol.9, No.4, 104, doi: 10.3390/act9040104, 2020.
  13. [13] L. A. Abeach, S. Nefti-Meziani, T. Theodoridis, and S. Davis, “A Variable Stiffness Soft Gripper Using Granular Jamming and Biologically Inspired Pneumatic Muscles,” J. of Bionic Engineering, Vol.15, pp. 236-246, doi: 10.1007/s42235-018-0018-8, 2018.
  14. [14] M. Fujita, K. Tadakuma, H. Komatsu, E. Takane, A. Nomura, T. Ichimura, M. Konyo, and S. Tadokoro, “Jamming layered membrane gripper mechanism for grasping differently shaped-objects without excessive pushing force for search and rescue missions,” Advanced Robotics, Vol.32, No.11, pp. 590-604, doi: 10.1080/01691864.2018.1451368, 2018.
  15. [15] Empire Robotics, “Products.” http://www.empirerobotics.com/products/ [Accessed December 9, 2021]
  16. [16] J. Amend, N. Cheng, S. Fakhouri, and B. Culley, “Soft Robotics Commercialization: Jamming Grippers from Research to Product,” Soft Robotics, Vol.3, pp. 213-222, 2016.
  17. [17] K. Yokouchi, T. Kamegawa, T. Matsuno, T. Hiraki, T. Yamaguchi, and A. Gofuku, “Development of a Gripper with Variable Stiffness for a CT-Guided Needle Insertion Robot,” J. Robot. Mechatron., Vol.32, No.3, pp. 692-700, 2020.
  18. [18] Y. Otsubo and K. Edamura, “Dielectric Fluid Motors,” Applied Physics Letters, Vol.71, Issue 3, pp. 318-320, doi: 10.1063/1.119560, 1997.
  19. [19] S. Yokota, Y. Ogawa, K. Takemura, and K. Edamura, “A Dual-Axis Liquid-Rate Microgyroscope Using Electro-Conjugate Fluid,” J. Adv. Comput. Intell. Intell. Inform., Vol.14, No.7, pp. 751-755, 2010.
  20. [20] S. Yokota, R. Nishizawa, K. Takemura, and K. Edamura, “Concept of a Micro Gyroscope Using Electro-Conjugate Fluid (ECF) and Development of an ECF Micro Gyro-Motor,” J. Robot. Mechatron., Vol.18, No.2, pp. 114-120, 2006.
  21. [21] S. Yokota, K. Kawamura, K. Takemura, and K. Edamura, “High-Integration Micromotor Using Electro-Conjugate Fluid (ECF),” J. Robot. Mechatron., Vol.17, No.2, pp. 142-148, 2005.
  22. [22] S. Yokota, M. Hirata, Y. Kondoh, K. Suzumori, A. Sadamoto, Y. Otsubo, and K. Edamura, “Micromotor Using Electroconjugate Fluid (Fabrication of Inner Diameter 2mm RE type ECF Motor),” J. Robot. Mechatron., Vol.13, No.2, pp. 140-145, 2001.
  23. [23] J. W. Kim, T. V. X. Nguyen, K. Edamura, and S. Yokota, “Triangular Prism and Slit Electrode Pair for ECF Jetting Fabricated by Thick Micromold and Electroforming as Micro Hydraulic Pressure Source for Soft Microrobots,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.10, No.4, pp. 470-478, 2016.
  24. [24] J. W. Kim, T. Yoshimoto, S. Yokota, and K. Edamura, “Concept of a Focus-Tunable ECF Microlens and Fabrication of a Large Model Prototype,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.6, No.4, pp. 476-481, 2012.
  25. [25] K. Tokida, A. Yamaguchi, K. Takemura, S. Yokota, and K. Edamura, “A Bio-Inspired Robot Using Electro-Conjugate Fluid,” J. Robot. Mechatron., Vol.25, No.1, pp. 16-24, 2013.
  26. [26] E. Nakamura, Y. Tanaka, T. Kinjo, K. Edamura, and S. Yokota, “Bionic Microsuction Cup Actuator Using Functional Fluid Power,” Proc. 22nd Int. Conf. on Mechatronics Technology, pp. 44-46, 2018.
  27. [27] M. E. Valentinuzzi and A. K. Kohen, “Laplace’s Law: What It Is About, Where It Comes from, and How It Is Often Applied in Physiology,” IEEE Pulse, Vol.2, No.4, pp. 74-84, doi: 10.1109/MPUL.2011.942054, 2011.
  28. [28] D. Koblar, J. Škofic, and M. Boltežar, “Evaluation of the Young’s Modulus of Rubber-Like Materials Bonded to Rigid Surfaces with Respect to Poisson’s Ratio,” J. of Mechanical Engineering, Vol.60, No.7-8, pp. 506-511, doi: 10.5545/sv-jme.2013.1510, 2014.
  29. [29] D. Tabor, “The bulk modulus of rubber,” Polymer, Vol.35, No.13, pp. 2759-2763, 1994.

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, Opera.

Last updated on Aug. 05, 2022