In-Process Height Displacement Measurement Using Crossed Line Beams for Process Control of Laser Wire Deposition
Shigeru Takushima*,**,, Nobuhiro Shinohara*, Daiji Morita*, Hiroyuki Kawano*, Yasuhiro Mizutani**, and Yasuhiro Takaya**
*Advanced R&D Center, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation
8-1-1 Tukaguchi-Honmachi, Amagasaki, Hyogo 661-8661, Japan
**Department of Mechanical Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Japan
We propose the use of the line section method with crossed line beams for the process control of laser wire deposition. This method could be used to measure the height displacement in front of a laser spot when the processing direction changes. In laser processing, especially laser deposition of metal additive manufacturing, the laser process control technique that controls the processing parameters based on the measured height displacement in front of a laser processing spot is indispensable for high-accuracy processing. However, it was impossible to measure the height displacement in front of a processing laser spot in a processing route in which the processing direction changes as the measurement direction of the conventional light-section method comprising the use of a straight-line beam is restricted although the configuration is simple. In this paper, we present an in-process height displacement measurement system of the light-section method using two crossed line beams. This method could be used to measure the height displacement in a ±90° direction by projecting two crossed line beams from the side of a laser processing head with a simple configuration comprising the addition of one line laser to the conventional light-section method. The height displacement can be calculated from the projected position shift of the line beams irrespective of the measurement direction by changing the longitudinal position on the crossed line beams according to the measurement direction. In addition, the configuration of our proposed system is compact because the imaging system is integrated into the processing head. We could measure the height displacement at 2.8–4 mm in front of a laser processing spot according to the measurement direction by reducing the influence of intense thermal radiation. Moreover, we experimentally evaluated the height displacement measurement accuracy for various measurement directions. Finally, we evaluated continuous deposition in an “L” shape wherein the deposition direction was changed while using a laser wire direct energy deposition machine for the laser process control based on the in-process height displacement measurement result. We achieved highly accurate continuous deposition at the position wherein the processing direction changes despite the acceleration and deceleration of the stage by laser process control.
-  Y. Takaya, “In-Process and On-Machine Measurement of Machining Accuracy for Process and Product Quality Management: A Review,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.8, No.1, pp. 4-19, 2014.
-  T. Arai, “Technical Review of Laser Materials Processing in Japan,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.10, No.6, pp. 854-862, 2016.
-  K. J. Pierre, D. Joost, M. Peter, V. V. Jonas, C. Tom, and D. K. Johan, “On-line monitoring and process control in selective laser melting and laser cutting,” Proc. of the 5th Lane Conf., Laser Assisted Net Shape Eng., Vol.1, pp. 23-37, 2007.
-  J. O. Milewski, G. K. Lewis, D. Thoma, G. I. Keel, R. B. Nemec, and R. A. Reinert, “Directed light fabrication of a solid metal hemisphere using 5-axis powder deposition,” J. of Materials Processing Technology, Vol.75, pp. 165-172, 1998.
-  A. Simchi and H. Pohl, “Direct laser sintering of iron–graphite powder mixture,” Materials Science and Eng.: A, Vol.383, pp. 191-200, 2004.
-  J. Nurminen, J. Riihimäki, J. Näkki, and P. Vuoristo, “Comparison of laser cladding with powder and hot and cold wire techniques,” Proc. of Int. Congress on Application of Lasers & Electro-Optics – ICALEO, pp. 634-637, 2006.
-  W. E. Frazier, “Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review,” J. of Materials Eng. and Performance, Vol.23, pp. 1917-1928, 2014.
-  J. L. Z. Li, M. R. Alkahari, N. A. B. Rosli, R. Hasan, M. N. Sudin, and F. R. Ramli, “Review of Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing for 3D Metal Printing,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.13, No.3, pp. 346-353, 2019.
-  J. Giannatsis and V. Dedoussis, “Additive fabrication technologies applied to medicine and health care: a review,” The Int. J. of Advanced Man. Technology, Vol.40, pp. 116-127, 2009.
-  A. Uriondo, M. E. Miguez, and S. Perinpanayagam, “The present and future of additive manufacturing in the aerospace sector: A review of important aspects,” Proc. of the Institution of Mech. Eng. Part G, J. of Aerospace Eng., Vol.229, pp. 2132-2147, 2015.
-  A. Gisario, M. Kazarian, F. Martina, and M. Mehrpouya, “Metal additive manufacturing in the commercial aviation industry: A review,” J. of Manufacturing Systems, Vol.53, pp. 124-149, 2019.
-  G. N. Levy, R. Schindel, and J. P. Kruth, “Rapid manufacturing and rapid tooling with layer manufacturing (LM) technologies, state of the art and future perspectives,” CIRP Annals – Manufacturing Technology, Vol.52, pp. 589-609, 2003.
-  Wohlers Associates, “Wohlers Report 2021: 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing: Global State of the Industry,” 2020.
-  https://www.mitsubishielectric.co.jp/corporate/randd/list/mechatronics/b233/index.html [Accessed November 9, 2020]
-  https://www.mitsubishielectric.co.jp/business/biz-t/contents/synergy/metal3dprinter001.html?utm_source=google&utm_medium=cpc&utm_campaign=bizt_20200915&utm_content=3dprinter&gclid=EAIaIQobChMI2u3zpM3j7AIVxLmWCh30AQElEAAYASAAEgLOQvD_BwE [Accessed November 9, 2020]
-  S. K. Everton, M. Hirsch, P. Stravroulakis, R. K. Leach, and A. T. Clare, “Review of in-situ process monitoring and in-situ metrology for metal additive manufacturing,” Materials and Design, Vol.95, pp. 431-445, 2016.
-  S. Liu, W. Liu, M. Harooni, J. Ma, and R. Kovacevic, “Real-time monitoring of laser hot-wire cladding of Inconel 625,” Optics & Laser Technology, Vol.62, pp. 124-134, 2014.
-  A. Heralic, A. K. Christiansson, M. Ottosson, and B. Lennartson, “Increased stability in laser metal wire deposition through feedback from optical measurements,” Optics and Lasers in Engineering, Vol.48, pp. 478-485, 2010.
-  J. N. Zalameda, E. R. Burke, R. A. Hafley, K. M. Taminger, C. S. Domack, A. Brewer, and R. E. Martin, “Thermal imaging for assessment of electron-beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) additive manufacturing deposits,” Proc. of SPIE, Vol.8705, 87050M, 2013.
-  Z. Yan, W. Liu, Z. Tang, X. Liu, N. Zhang, M. Li, and H. Zhang, “Review on thermal analysis in laser-based additive manufacturing,” Optics and Laser Technology, Vol.106, pp. 427-441, 2018.
-  A. Heralic, A. K. Christiansson, and B. Lennartson, “Height control of laser metal-wire deposition based on iterative learning control and 3D scanning,” Optics and Lasers in Engineering, Vol.50, pp. 1230-1241, 2012.
-  S. Donadello, M. Motta, A. G. Demir, and B. Previtali, “Monitoring of laser metal deposition height by means of coaxial laser triangulation,” Optics and Lasers in Engineering, Vol.112, pp. 136-144, 2019.
-  P. Hagqvist, A. Heralic, A. K. Christiansson, and B. Lennartson, “Resistance based iterative learning control of additive manufacturing with wire,” Mechatronics, Vol.31, pp. 116-123, 2015.
-  H. Gao, Q. Gu, T. Takaki, and I. Ishii, “A self-projected light-section method for fast three-dimensional shape inspection,” Int. J. of Optomechatronics, Vol.6, pp. 289-303, 2012.
-  S. Takushima, D. Morita, N. Shinohara, H. Kawano, Y. Mizutani, and Y. Takaya, “Optical in-process height measurement system for process control of laser metal-wire deposition,” Precision Engineering, Vol.62, pp. 23-29, 2020.
-  S. Takushima, D. Morita, N. Shinohara, H. Kawano, Y. Mizutani, and Y. Takaya, “In-process height monitoring system by light section method for laser metal-wire deposition,” Proc. of the 14th Int. Symp. of Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments, 80, 2020.
-  P. Ackermann and R. Schmitt, “Tomographical process monitoring of laser transmission welding with OCT,” Proc. of SPIE, Vol.10329, 103290H, 2017.
This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internationa License.