Environmental and Economic Evaluation of a Mechanical Biological Treatment System for a Small and Medium-Sized Waste Treatment Facility Considering the Karatsu Smart Disaster-Resilience Base Construction Project
Akihisa Ogawa, Andante Hadi Pandyaswargo, Daiki Yoshidome, and Hiroshi Onoda
Graduate School of Environment and Energy Engineering, Waseda University
513 Wasedatsurumakicho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-0041, Japan
We evaluated the feasibility of waste-generated heat using a 100-kW digestion gas engine at the Karatsu City Water Purification Center by evaluating its disaster resilience through four indicators. We achieved the best outcome, i.e., a power generation rate of 1,122 kW and a power self-sufficiency rate of 22% when two or more digestion gas engines were installed to supply waste-generated heat to the absorption chiller/heater of a water-pool. Additionally, we evaluated the environmental and economic aspects of a Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) system installed in Karatsu City. The results suggested that by installing an MBT system, the annual cost could be reduced by ∼100 million Yen and the power generation capacity could be increased to 4,310 kW; this could also help reduce 19,000 tons of annual CO2 emissions with increased power generation. The environmental and economic feasibility assessment tool developed here is configurable; hence, applicable to other regions.
-  Y. Gu, Y. Li, X. Li, P. Luo, H. Wang, Z. P. Robinson, X. Wang, J. Wu, and F. Li, “The feasibility and challenges of energy self-sufficient wastewater treatment plants,” Applied Energy, Vol.204, pp. 1463-1475, 2017.
-  M. Zhang, J. Gu, and Y. Liu, “Engineering feasibility, economic viability and environmental sustainability of energy recovery from nitrous oxide in biological wastewater treatment plant,” Bioresource Technology, Vol.282, pp. 514-519, 2019.
-  Japan Sewage Works Association, “Management of Wastewater in Japan,” 2016.
-  Ministry of the Environment, “Expansion and Centralization of Waste Management to Ensure Sustainable and Appropriate Treatment (Notice),” 2019.
-  A. Ogawa, H. Uehara, N. Tagomori, D. Yoshidome, and H. Onoda, “Feasibility study on MBT (Mechanical Biological Treatment) system by cooperation garbage incineration facilities and sewage treatment facilities (Through questionnaire survey for local governments and visualization by GIS),” Proc. of 2020 Symp. on Environmental Engineering, 2020.
-  H.-S. Chang and C.-H. Liao, “Planning emergency shelter locations based on evacuation behavior,” Natural Hazards, Vol.76, No.3, pp. 1551-1571, 2015.
-  Y. Hisada, T. Osaragi, M. Murakami, O. Mizuno, W. Kobayashi, S. Yasuda, M. Ohara, T. Yamashita, K. Takeda, T. Suematsu, J. Shindo, T. Oki, and A. Kakizaki, “Disaster response and mitigation support technology for all-hazards in Tokyo metropolitan area,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.14, No.2, pp. 387-404, 2019.
-  W. Chen, G. Zhai, C. Fan, W. Jin, and Y. Xie, “A planning framework based on system theory and GIS for urban emergency shelter system: A case of Guangzhou, China,” Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An Int. J., Vol.23, No.3, pp. 441-456, 2017.
-  M. Yamamoto and Y. Kobayashi, “The latest waste incineration facility with energy supply function “MUSASHINO CLEAN CENTER”,” Proc. of 2018 Symp. on Environmental Engineering, Vol.2018.28, pp. 171-174, 2018.
-  K. Okamura, Y. Dong, K. Takahata, and J. Yang, “On the Development of a Control System for a Small Bio-Methane Gas Engine Generator,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.11, No.3, pp. 519-528, 2017.
-  Ministry of the Environment, “Case Studies on Regional Circulation and Symbiosis: A Decarbonization Model Formation Project to Meet Various Local Challenges,” p. 8, 2020 (in Japanese). http://www.env.go.jp/earth/ondanka/bunsan/chiikijyunnkannkyouseikennjireishu.pdf [Accessed March 19, 2020]
-  Y. Fujinawa, R. Kouda, and Y. Noda, “The resilient smart city (an proposal),” J. Disaster Res., Vol.10, No.2, pp. 319-325, 2015.
-  H. Jouhara, N. Khordehgah, S. Almahmoud, B. Delpech, A. Chauhan, and S. A. Tassou, “Waste heat recovery technologies and applications,” Thermal Science and Engineering Progress, Vol.6, pp. 268-289, 2018.
-  M. R. Boswell, W. J. Siembieda, and K. C. Topping, “Post-Disaster Assessment of the Performance of Hazard Mitigation Projects: The California SMART Approach,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.5, No.2, pp. 172-179, 2010.
-  C. Fan, G. Zhai, S. Zhou, H. Zhang, and P. Qiao, “Integrated Framework for Emergency Shelter Planning Based on Multihazard Risk Evaluation and Its Application: Case Study in China,” Natural Hazards Review, Vol.18, No.4, pp. 1-15, 2017.
-  H. Onoda, “A Study on the approach to the Smart Community – Through renewable energy projects in Saitama Prefecture,” Proc. of EcoDesign 2015, 2015.
-  R. Kikuchi, D. Yoshidome, and H. Onoda, “Actual measurement evaluation and Improvement proposal of Solar-thermal and Ground thermal Hybrid Energy Supply System for Restaurants,” Proc. of 2019 Symp. on Environmental Engineering, Vol.2019.29, pp. 230-233, 2019.
-  L. Wei and Y. Hu, “Research on new and old kinetic energy transformation supported by smart city construction in big data era,” J. Adv. Comput. Intell. Intell. Inform., Vol.23, No.1, pp. 102-106, 2019.
-  A. Vecere, R. Monteiro, W. J. Ammann, S. Giovinazzi, and R. H. Melo Santos, “Predictive models for post disaster shelter needs assessment,” Int. J. of Disaster Risk Reduction, Vol.21, pp. 44-62, 2017.
-  A. Ogawa, D. Watanabe, K. Ko, H. Onoda, Y. Watanabe, and J. Yamaguchi, “Environmental and economic evaluation of combined system of the garbage facility and sewage treatment facility,” Proc. of 2019 Symp. on Environmental Engineering, Vol.2019.29, pp. 140-143, 2019.
-  H. Hu, R. Zhao, K. Omura, and H. Onoda, “Development of a Municipal Waste Management System from Environmental and Economic Evaluation Perspectives: A Best Available System Methodology,” Technologies and Eco-innovation towards Sustainability II, pp. 81-97, 2019.
-  Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection, “Research Report No. 28 of Tokyo Cleaning Institute,” 1998 (in Japanese). https://www.tokyokankyo.jp/kankyoken/research/waste/solidwaste/ [Accessed March 19, 2020]
-  Mitaka City and Chofu City, “Basic Plan for New Waste Disposal Facilities,” 2016 (in Japanese). http://www.city.mitaka.tokyo.jp/c_service/011/attached/attach_11607_4.pdf [Accessed March 19, 2020]
-  Karatsu City, “Basic Plan for Municipal Waste,” 2014.
-  Ministry of the Environment, “Notes on guidance for municipal waste treatment projects,” 1990.
-  Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, “Current status and challenges of sewage sludge resource utilization,” 2006.
-  T. Okabe, “Introduction of the case study of participation in B-DASH project,” Sewerage Management Division, Urban Development Department, Karatsu City. http://www.mlit.go.jp/common/001228055.pdf [Accessed March 19, 2020]
-  Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism and National Institute for Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, “Guideline for the Outline Study of Resource and Energy Conversion Technology for Sewage Sludge (Draft),” 2014.
-  Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, “Manual for Utilization of Local Biomass in Sewage Treatment Plants,” 2017.
-  Y. Yuyama, M. Yamaoka, M. Nakamura, and N. Shimizu, “Economic evaluation of methane fermentation plant,” Keynote Addressed at the General Assembly of The Japanese Society of Irrigation, Drainage and Rural Engineering, Nos.6-21, 2011.
-  Ohara Corporation, “Evaluation of systematization of waste treatment system for small and medium-sized waste treatment in FY 2018 (Evaluation and verification of recycling and energy conversion method in small and medium-sized waste treatment facilities by methane fermentation treatment system using mechanical sorting),” 2019.
This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.