Study of Femtosecond Laser Ablation Effect on Micro-Processing for 4H-SiC Substrate
Chengwu Wang*1,†, Syuhei Kurokawa*2, Julong Yuan*3, Li Fan*1, Huizong Lu*3, Zhe Wu*4, Weifeng Yao*5, Kehua Zhang*1, Yu Zhang*1, and Toshiro Doi*3,*6
*1College of Engineering, Zhejiang Normal University
Jinhua 321004, China
*2Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
*3Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, China
*4School of Mechanical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Xuancheng, China
*5Shaoxing University, Shaoxing, China
*6Global Innovation Center, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
4H-SiC substrate was ablated by linearly polarized femtosecond (fs) laser in three direct write methods at different parameters, such as repetition rate, scanning velocity and fluence, etc. Two processing modes, transverse scanning mode (TSM) and cross irradiation mode (CIM), were introduced. The surface morphologies were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for detailed investigation. It was found that the surface morphologies differed remarkably at different processing parameters. Firstly, the shapes of micro craters fabricated at different repetition rates and ablation time duration were respectively investigated. The shape of fs laser spot was demonstrated to play an important role for the generation of micro craters. Secondly, the effect of scanning velocity on the formation of nanoripples and micro grooves were investigated. It was found that the spatial ripples could be refabricated during repeated fs laser ablation; periodic ripples and micro grooves depended on fs laser scanning velocity. Agglomerative substance was fabricated especially at slow scanning velocity. Furthermore, rippled surfaces induced at different fluence were achieved and exhibited. Regular and uniform surfaces with periodic ripples were fabricated at the fluence of 0.31∼0.38 J/cm2. Finally, CMP was carried out to study the effect of fs laser ablation on polishing.
-  P. Molian, B. Pecholt, and S. Gupta, “Picosecond pulsed laser ablation and micromachining of 4H-SiC wafers,” Applied Surface Science, Vol.255, No.8, pp. 4515-4520, 2009.
-  J. Zhang, Y. Long, S. Liao et al., “Effect of laser scanning speed on geometrical features of Nd:YAG laser machined holes in thin silicon nitride substrate,” Ceramics Int., Vol.43, No.3, pp. 2938-2942, 2017.
-  W. Zhao, W. Wang, B. Q. Li et al., “Wavelength effect on hole shapes and morphology evolution during ablation by picosecond laser pulses,” Optics & Laser Technology, Vol.84, pp. 79-86, 2016.
-  N. Kawasegi, C. H. Sugimori, C. N. Morita et al., “Improvement of machining performance of small-diameter end mill by means of micro- and nanometer-scale textures,” Int. J. of Automation Technology, Vol.10, No.6, pp. 882-890, 2016.
-  A. Mitani and S. Hirai, “Submillimeter Micropart Feeding Along an Asymmetric Femtosecond Laser Microfabricated Surface,” Int. J. of Automation Technology, Vol.3, No.2, pp. 151-156, 2009.
-  P. Zhang, L. Chen, J. Chen et al., “Material removal effect of microchannel processing by femtosecond laser,” Optics & Lasers in Engineering, Vol.98, pp. 69-75, 2017.
-  X. J. Wu, T. Q. Jia, F. L. Zhao, M. Huang, N. S. Xu, H. Kuroda, and Z. Z. Xu, “Formation mechanisms of uniform arrays of periodic nanoparticles and nanoripples on 6H-SiC crystal surface induced by femtosecond laser ablation,” Appl. Phys. A., Vol.86, pp. 491-495, 2007.
-  G. Obara, H. Shimizu, T. Enami et al., “Growth of high spatial frequency periodic ripple structures on SiC crystal surfaces irradiated with successive femtosecond laser pulses,” Optics Express, Vol.21, No.22, 26323, 2013.
-  G. R. B. E. Römer, A. J. Huis in’t Veld, J. Meijer, and M. N. W. Groenendijk, “On the formation of laser induced self-organizing nanostructures,” CIRP Annals – Manufacturing Technology, Vol.58, pp. 201-204, 2009.
-  L. Punian, L. Zhihua, and F. Jingqin, “Effects of Incident Angle on Metal Periodic Structures Induced by Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Acta Optica Sinica, Vol.29, No.7, pp. 1902-1904, 2009.
-  P. Simon and J. Ihlemann, “Ablation of submicron structures on metals and semiconductors by femtosecond UV-laser pulses,” Applied Surface Science, Vol.109-110, pp. 25-29, 1997.
-  H. Chen, T. Jia, M. Huang et al., “Visible-infrared femtosecond laser-induced optical breakdown of 6H SiC,” Acta Optica Sinica, Vol.26, No.3, pp. 467-470, 2006.
-  H. Chen, T. Jia, M. Huang et al., “Optical Breakdown of 6H SiC Induced by Wavelength-Tunable Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Jpn. J. appl. phys. part, Vol.45, No.45, pp. 28-31, 2006 (in Japanese).
-  H. X. Qian, W. Zhou, H. Y. Zheng, X. R. Zeng, and H. C. Sheng, “Evolution of periodic structures on InP (100) surface irradiated with femtosecond laser,” Materials Letters, Vol.124, pp. 235-238, 2014.
-  S. H. Kim, I. B. Sohn, and S. Jeong, “Fabrication of uniform nanogrooves on 6H-SiC by femtosecond laser ablation,” Applied Physics A, Vol.102, No.1, pp. 55-59, 2011.
-  A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Femtosecond laser structuring of titanium implants,” Applied Surface Science, Vol.253, pp. 7272-7280, 2007.
-  R. Serra, V. Oliveira, J. C. Oliveira, T. Kubart, R. Vilar, and A. Cavaleiro, “Large-area homogeneous periodic surface structures generated on the surface of sputtered boron carbide thin films by femtosecond laser processing,” Applied Surface Science, Vol.331, pp. 161-169, 2015.
-  M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” ACS Nano, Vol.3, pp. 4062-4070, 2009.
-  H. Dachraoui, W. Husinsky, and G. Betz, “Ultra-short laser ablation of metals and semiconductors: evidence of ultra-fast Coulomb explosion,” Applied Physics A, Vol.83, No.2, pp. 333-336, 2006.
-  J. Reif, F. Costache, M. Henyk, and S. V. Pandelov, “Ripples revisited: non-classical morphology at the bottom of femtosecond laser ablation craters in transparent dielectrics,” Applied Surface Science, Vol.197, pp. 891-895, 2002.
-  Y. Dong and P. Molian, “Coulomb explosion-induced formation of highly oriented nanoparticles on thin films of 3C-SiC by the femtosecond pulsed laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol.84, p. 10, 2004.
-  T. Q. Jia, F. L. Zhao, M. Huang, H. X. Chen, J. R. Qiu, and R. X. Li, “Alignment of nanoparticles formed on the surface of 6H-SiC crystals irradiated by two collinear femtosecond laser beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol.88, p. 111117, 2006.
-  Y. Zhang, X. Jia, P. Xiong et al., “Fabrication and enhanced optical absorption of submicrometer pits array on 6H-SiC via two-beam interference of femtosecond laser,” Chinese Optics Letters, Vol.8, No.12, pp. 1203-1206, 2010.
-  X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, H. L. Ma, B. Lu, and X. W. Sun, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on ZnO,” Materials Letters, Vol.62, pp. 1769-1771, 2008.
-  A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol.82, pp. 4462-4464, 2003.
-  V. I. Emel’yanov and D. V. Babak, “Defect capture under rapid solidification of the melt induced by the action of femtosecond laser pulses and formation of periodic surface structures on a semiconductor surface,” Applied Physics A., Vol.74, No.6, pp. 797-805, 2002.
-  J. M. Li and J. T. Xu, “Self-organized nanostructure by a femtosecond laser on silicon,” Laser Phys., Vol.19, pp. 121-124, 2009.
-  O. Varlamova, F. Costache, J. Reif, and M. Bestehorn, “Self-organized pattern formation upon femtosecond laser ablation by circularly polarized light,” Applied Surface Science, Vol.252, Issue 13, 30, pp. 4702-4706, 2006.
-  A. L. Robinson, “Femtosecond Laser Annealing of Silicon: The thermal melting and recrystallization processes invoked at slower speeds fail for subpicosecond pulses, a new twist on an old controversy,” Science, Vol.226, No.4672, pp. 329-330, 1984.
-  P. Saeta, J. Wang, Y. Siegal et al., “Ultrafast electronic disordering during femtosecond laser melting of GaAs,” Physical Review Letters, Vol.67, No.8, p. 1023, 1991.
-  K. Sokolowskitinten, J. Bialkowski, M. Boing et al., “Thermal and nonthermal melting of gallium arsenide after femtosecond laser excitation,” Physical Review B, Vol.581, No.18, pp. 11805-11808, 1998.
-  K. Toshiro, M. Kinoshita, and K. Kimura, “Planarization CMP for Semiconductor LSI Devices and Its Applications: Globalization Activities and Education Activities,” J. of the Japan Society for Precision Engineering, Vol.73, No.10, pp. 1097-1101, 2007.
-  T. Doi, Y. Sano, S. Kurowaka et al., “Novel Chemical Mechanical Polishing/Plasma-Chemical Vaporization Machining (CMP/P-CVM) Combined Processing of Hard-to-Process Crystals Based on Innovative Concepts,” Sensors & Materials, 2014, Vol.26, No.6, pp. 403-415, 2014.
-  T. Doi, K. Seshimo, T. Yamazaki et al., “Smart Polishing of Hard-to-Machine Materials with an Innovative Dilatancy Pad under High-Pressure, High-Speed,” Immersed Condition, Vol.5, No.10, pp. 598-607, 2016.
-  A. Rousse, C. Rischel, S. Fourmaux, I. Uschmann, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, Ph. Balcou, E. F.rster, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, and D. Hulin, “Non-thermal melting in semiconductors measured at femtosecond resolution,” Nature, Vol.410, pp. 65-68, 2001.
-  B. Pecholt, M. Vendan, Y. Dong, and P. Molian, “Ultrafast laser micromachining of 3C-SiC thin films for MEMS device abrication,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., Vol.39, pp. 239-250, 2008.
-  Y. Jiang, T. Narushima, and H. Okamoto, “Nonlinear optical effects in trapping nanoparticles with femtosecond pulses,” Nature Physics, Vol.6, pp. 1005-1009, 2010.
-  T. Ditmire, J. W. G. Tisch, E. Springate et al., “High-energy ions produced in explosions of superheated atomic clusters,” Nature, Vol.386, No.6620, pp. 54-56, 1997.
-  H. Shimizu, S. Yada, G. Obara, and M. Terakawa, “Contribution of defect on early stage of LIPSS formation,” Optics Express, Vol.21, No.22, pp. 26323-26325, 2013.
-  Y. Dong, C. Zorman, and P. Molian, “Femtosecond pulsed laser micromachining of single crystalline 3C SiC structures based on a laser-induced defect-activation process,” J. of Micromechanics & Microengineering, Vol.13, No.5, pp. 680-685, 2003.
-  C. Wang, S. Kurokawa, T. Doi et al., “The Polishing Effect of SiC Substrates in Femtosecond Laser Irradiation Assisted Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP),” ECS J. of Solid State Science and Technology, Vol.6, No.4, pp. 105-112, 2017.
This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.