Graphene Nanomechanical Resonator Mass Sensing of Mixed H2/Ar Gas
Manoharan Muruganathan*,†, Fumihiro Seto*, and Hiroshi Mizuta*,**
*School of Material Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Nomi 923-1211, Japan
**Hitachi Cambridge Laboratory, Cambridge, United Kingdom
We report the local top-gated graphene resonator inertial mass sensing of mixed H2/Ar gas. The graphene resonator is fabricated with monolayer graphene. The fabricated resonator dimensions are 900 nm in length and 500 nm in width. Measurements of the fabricated resonator are performed using a co-planar structure probe and radio-frequency (RF) connectors. At the vacuum condition of the chamber, the resonant frequency of the doubly clamped graphene resonator is measured as 94.3 MHz with the quality factor of 42.2, based on transmission S-parameter characterization. The measured resonant frequency is consistent with the theoretical calculation based on the continuum model for the graphene resonator. When the chamber pressure is increased to 1.1×10-1 Pa by injecting mixed H2/Ar gas, the resonant frequency of the device is downshifted by 4.32 MHz to 89.98 MHz and the quality factor is reduced to 22.5. As the mass of the graphene resonator is increased by the adsorption of mixed gas molecules adsorption, the resonant frequency is downshifted further. The detected mass of the adsorbed gas molecules is calculated as ∼15 attograms.
-  K. S. Novoselov, “Electric Field Effect in Atomically Thin Carbon Films,” Science, Vol.306, No.5696, pp. 666-669, 2004.
-  F. Schedin, et al., “Detection of individual gas molecules adsorbed on graphene,” Nat. Mater., Vol.6, No.9, pp. 652-655, 2007.
-  M. Manoharan, T. Chikuba, N. Kanetake, J. Sun, and H. Mizuta, “Low pull-in voltage graphene nanoelectromechanical switches,” 2015 Silicon Nanoelectronics Workshop (SNW), pp. 1-2, 2015.
-  J. Sun, W. Wang, M. Muruganathan, and H. Mizuta, “Low pull-in voltage graphene electromechanical switch fabricated with a polymer sacrificial spacer,” Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol.105, No.3, p. 033103, 2014.
-  J. Sun, M. E. Schmidt, M. Muruganathan, H. M. H. Chong, and H. Mizuta, “Large-Scale Nanoelectromechanical Switches Based on Directly Deposited Nanocrystalline Graphene on Insulating Substrates,” Nanoscale, 2016.
-  M. Muruganathan, J. Sun, T. Imamura, and H. Mizuta, “Electrically Tunable van der Waals Interaction in Graphene–Molecule Complex,” Nano Lett., Vol.15, No.12, pp. 8176-8180, 2015.
-  J. Sun, M. Muruganathan, and H. Mizuta, “Room temperature detection of individual molecular physisorption using suspended bilayer graphene,” Sci. Adv., Vol.2, No.4, pp. e1501518-e1501518, 2016.
-  C. Chen et al., “Performance of monolayer graphene nanomechanical resonators with electrical readout,” Nat. Nanotechnol., Vol.4, No.12, pp. 861-867, 2009.
-  C. Chen et al., “Graphene mechanical oscillators with tunable frequency,” Nat. Nanotechnol., Vol.8, No.12, pp. 923-927, 2013.
-  J. Chaste, A. Eichler, J. Moser, G. Ceballos, R. Rurali, and A. Bachtold, “A nanomechanical mass sensor with yoctogram resolution,” Nat. Nanotechnol., Vol.7, No.5, pp. 301-304, 2012.
-  Y. T. Yang, C. Callegari, X. L. Feng, K. L. Ekinci, and M. L. Roukes, “Zeptogram-Scale Nanomechanical Mass Sensing,” Nano Lett., Vol.6, No.4, pp. 583-586, 2006.
-  Y. Fukushima, T. Suzuki, K. Onda, H. Komatsu, H. Kuroiwa, and T. Kaburagi, “Study on the Online Monitoring of Burn Marks by Gas Sensor,” Int. J. Autom. Technol., Vol.11, No.1, pp. 112-119, 2017.
-  D. Parobek, G. Shenoy, F. Zhou, Z. Peng, M. Ward, and H. Liu, “Synthesizing and Characterizing Graphene via Raman Spectroscopy: An Upper-Level Undergraduate Experiment That Exposes Students to Raman Spectroscopy and a 2D Nanomaterial,” J. Chem. Educ., Vol.93, No.10, pp. 1798-1803, 2016.
-  A. E. Grigorescu and C. W. Hagen, “Resists for sub-20-nm electron beam lithography with a focus on HSQ: state of the art,” Nanotechnology, Vol.20, No.29, p. 292001, 2009.
-  B. Kaleli, A. A. I. Aarnink, S. M. Smits, R. J. E. Hueting, R. A. M. Wolters, and J. Schmitz, “Electron beam lithography of HSQ and PMMA resists and importance of their properties to link the nano world to the micro world,” 2010.
-  T. Iwasaki et al., “Hydrogen intercalation: An approach to eliminate silicon dioxide substrate doping to graphene,” Appl. Phys. Express, Vol.8, No.1, p. 015101, 2015.
-  T. Iwasaki, M. Muruganathan, M. E. Schmidt, and H. Mizuta, “Partial hydrogenation induced interaction in a graphene–SiO2 interface: irreversible modulation of device characteristics,” Nanoscale, Vol.9, No.4, pp. 1662-1669, 2017.
-  J. S. Bunch et al., “Electromechanical Resonators from Graphene Sheets,” Science, Vol.315, No.5811, pp. 490-493, 2007.
-  E. Stolyarova et al., “Observation of Graphene Bubbles and Effective Mass Transport under Graphene Films,” Nano Lett., Vol.9, No.1, pp. 332-337, 2009.
-  M. Manoharan and H. Mizuta, “Point defect-induced transport bandgap widening in the downscaled armchair graphene nanoribbon device,” Carbon, Vol.64, pp. 416-423, 2013.
-  M. Manoharan and H. Mizuta, “Edge irregularities in extremely down-scaled graphene nanoribbon devices: role of channel width,” Mater. Res. Express, Vol.1, No.4, p. 045605, 2014.
-  S. Joshi, S. Hung, and S. Vengallatore, “Design strategies for controlling damping in micromechanical and nanomechanical resonators,” EPJ Tech. Instrum., Vol.1, No.1, pp. 1-14, 2014.
-  J. Lee, Z. Wang, K. He, J. Shan, and P. X.-L. Feng, “Air damping of atomically thin MoS 2 nanomechanical resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol.105, No.2, p. 023104, 2014.
-  H.-Y. Chiu, P. Hung, H. W. C. Postma, and M. Bockrath, “Atomic-Scale Mass Sensing Using Carbon Nanotube Resonators,” Nano Lett., Vol.8, No.12, pp. 4342-4346, 2008.
-  J. Kysilka, M. Rubeš, L. Grajciar, P. Nachtigall, and O. Bludský, “Accurate Description of Argon and Water Adsorption on Surfaces of Graphene-Based Carbon Allotropes,” J. Phys. Chem. A, Vol.115, No.41, pp. 11387-11393, 2011.
-  F. Costanzo, P. L. Silvestrelli, and F. Ancilotto, “Physisorption, Diffusion, and Chemisorption Pathways of H 2 Molecule on Graphene and on (2,2) Carbon Nanotube by First Principles Calculations,” J. Chem. Theory Comput., Vol.8, No.4, pp. 1288-1294, 2012.
This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internationa License.