Review:

# High-Accuracy Absolute Length Measurement Using an Optical-Comb Pulsed Interferometer: Verification of Coordinate Measuring Machines

## Kiyoshi Takamasu^{*,†} and Wiroj Sudatham^{**}

^{*}Department of Precision Engineering, The University of Tokyo

7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan

^{†}Corresponding author

^{**}Dimensional Metrology Department, National Institute of Metrology, Pathumthani, Thailand

The optical frequency comb has become a standard for length and frequency measurements. Its pulsed laser can produce temporal coherence interference fringe patterns, and these fringes can be used as the length standard for practical measurement of absolute lengths. This research aims to develop a measuring system for coordinate measuring machine (CMM) verification, which can be used to measure the absolute length of a target in three dimensions. Thus, a spherical target has been considered. A ball lens with a refractive index of 2.0 has been selected as the target for the interferometer in this study. Using the ball lens target, the absolute length can be measured up to 10 m, covering the medium- to large-sized range of CMM applications. The experimental results demonstrate that the measurement uncertainty is smaller than that of the artifact test. In addition, the measurement time of the proposed method is 60% less than that of the artifact-test method.

*Int. J. Automation Technol.*, Vol.11, No.5, pp. 682-690, 2017.

- [1] https://www.nmij.jp/library/units/length/(inJapanese) [accessed Nov. 10, 2016]
- [2] http://www.aist.go.jp/aist_j/press_release/pr2009/pr20090716/pr20090716.html(inJapanese) [accessed Nov. 10, 2016]
- [3] ISO 10360-1, Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS), Acceptance and reverification tests for coordinate measuring machines (CMM), Part 1: Vocabulary, 2000.
- [4] ISO 10360-2, Geometrical Product Specification (GPS), Acceptance and reverification tests for coordinate measuring machines (CMM), Part 2: CMMs used for measuring linear dimensions, Int. Organization for Standardization, 2009.
- [5] W. Sudatham, H. Matsumoto, S. Takahashi, and K. Takamasu, “Non-contact measurement technique for dimensional metrology using optical comb,” Measurement, Vol.78, pp. 381-387, 2016.
- [6] W. Sudatham, H. Matsumoto, S. Takahashi, and K. Takamasu, “Diagonal in space of coordinate measuring machine verification using an optical-comb pulsed interferometer with a ball-lens target,” Precision Engineering, Vol.43, pp. 486-492, 2016.
- [7] C. Rullière, “Femtosecond Laser Pulses – principles and experiments,” Springer, pp. 53-2, 1998.
- [8] J. Ye and S. T. Cundiff, “Femtosecond Optical Frequency Comb: Principle, Operation, and Applications,” Springer, pp. 12-2, 2004.
- [9] S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye, “Femtosecond optical frequency combs,” Reviews of modern physics, Vol.75, No.1, pp. 325-42, 2003.
- [10] D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science, Vol.288, No.5466, pp. 635-39, 2000.
- [11] R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical Frequency Synthesizer for Precision Spectroscopy,” Physical Review Letters, Vol.85, No.11, pp. 2264-67, 2000.
- [12] H. Inaba, Y. Nakajima, F. L. Hong, K. Minoshima, J. Ishikawa, A. Onae, H. Matsumoto, M. Wouters, B. Warrington, and N. Brown, “Frequency Measurement Capability of a Fiber-Based Frequency Comb at 633 nm,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol.58, No.4, pp. 1234-40, 2009.
- [13] K. Minoshima and H. Matsumoto, “High-accuracy measurement of 240-m distance in an optical tunnel by use of a compact femtosecond laser,” Applied Optics, Vol.39, No.30, pp. 5512-17, 2000.
- [14] H. Matsumoto, X. Wang, K. Takamasu, and T. Aoto, “Absolute measurement of baselines up to 403 m using heterodyne temporal coherence interferometer with optical frequency comb,” Applied Physics Express, Vol.5, pp. 046601-1-3, 2012.
- [15] X. Wang, S. Takahashi, K. Takamasu, and H. Matsumoto, “Space position measurement using long-path heterodyne interferometer with optical frequency comb,” Optics Express, Vol.20, No.3, pp. 2725-32, 2012.
- [16] X. Wang, S. Takahashi, K. Takamasu, and H. Matsumoto, “Spatial positioning measurements up to 150 m using temporal coherence of optical frequency comb,” Precision Engineering, Vol.37, pp. 635-39, 2013.
- [17] C. Narin, S. Takahashi, K. Takamasu, and H. Matsumoto, “Step gauge measurement using high-frequency of a mode-locked fiber laser,” Proc. of XX IMEKO World Congress, Metrology for Green Growth, Busan, Korea, pp. 177-81, 2012.
- [18] N. Schuhler, Y. Salvadé, S. Lévêque, R. Dändliker, and R. Holzwarth, “Frequency-comb-referenced two-wavelength source for absolute distance measurement,” Optics Letters, Vol.31, No.21, pp. 3101-03, 2006.
- [19] S. W. Kim and Y. J. Kim, “Advanced optical metrology using ultrashort pulse laser,” Review of Laser Engineering, Vol 36, pp. 1254-57, 2008.
- [20] N. R. Doloca, K. Meiners-Hagen, M. Wedde, F. Pollinger, and A. Abou-Zeid, “Absolute distance measurement system using a femtosecond laser as amodulator,” Measurement Science and Technology, Vol.21 pp. 115302-1-7, 2010.
- [21] S. Hyun, Y. J. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Jin, and S. W. Kim, “Absolute length measurement with the frequency comb of a femtosecode laser,” Measurement Science and Technology, Vol.20, pp. 095302-1-6, 2009.
- [22] H. Matsumoto and K. Takamasu, “Automatic Recording Absolute Length-Measuring System with Fast Optical-Comb Fiber Interferometer,” Int. J. of Automation Technology, Vol.9, No.5, pp. 482-486, 2015.
- [23] T. Takatsuji, M. Goto, S. Osawa, R. Yin, and T. Kurosawa, “Whole-viewing-angle cat’s-eye retroreflector as a target of laser trackers,” Measurement Science Technology, Vol.10, pp. N87-N90, 1999.
- [24] M. Abbe, K. Takamasu, and S. Ozono, “Reliability on calibration of CMM,” Measurement, Vol.33, pp. 359-68, 2003.
- [25] S.D. Phillips, D. Sawyer, B. Borchardt, D. Ward, and D.E. Beutel, “A novel artifact for testing large coordinate measuring machines,” Precision Engineering, Vol.25, pp. 29-34, 2001.
- [26] L. Arriba, E. Trapet, M. Bartscher, M. Franke, A. Balsamo, G. Costelli, S. Torre4, F. Kitzsteiner, and F. San Martín, “Method and artifacts to calibrate large CMMs,” European standards measurements and testing programme, project SMT4-PL97-2330, 1999.
- [27] Y. Asano, R. Furutani, and M. Ozaki, “Verification of Interim Check Method of CMM,” Int. J. of Automation Technology, Vol.5, No.2, pp. 115-119, 2011
- [28] H. Schwenke, R. Schmitt, P. Jatzkowski, and C. Warmann, “On-the-fly calibration of linear and rotary axes of machine tools and CMMs using a tracking interferometer,” CIRP Annals – Manufacturing Technology, Vol.58, pp. 477-80, 2009.
- [29] M. Kajima, T. Watanabe, M. Abe, and T. Takatsuji, “Calibrator for 2D Grid Plate Using Imaging Coordinate Measuring Machine with Laser Interferometers,” Int. J. of Automation Technology, Vol.9, No.5, pp. 541-545, 2015.

This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internationa License.