Life Cycle Analysis of Emissions from Electric and Gasoline Vehicles in Different Regions
Kamila Romejko† and Masaru Nakano
Graduate School of System Design and Management, Keio University
Collaboration Complex, 4-1-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8526, Japan
-  A. Korzhenevych, N. Dehnen, J. Bröcker, M. Holtkamp, H. Meier, G. Gibson, A. Varna, and V. Cox, “Update of the Handbook on External Costs of Transport,” RICARDO-AEA, London, 2014.
-  International Energy Agency, “Energy and Air Pollution,” 2016.
-  T. Mimuro and H. Takanashi, “Fuel Operated Heaters Applied to Electric Vehicles,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.8, No.5, pp. 723-732, 2014.
-  T. R. Hawkins, B. Singh, G. Majeau-Bettez, and A. H. Stromman, “Comparative Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Conventional and Electric Vehicles,” J. Ind. Ecol., Vol.17, No.1, pp. 53-64, 2013.
-  International Energy Agency (IEA), “Energy Technology Perspectives 2016,” 2015.
-  M. Held and M. Baumann, “Assessment of the Environmental Impacts of Electric Vehicle Concepts,” Towards Life Cycle Sustainability Management, pp. 535-546, Springer, 2011.
-  J. Buekers, M. Van Holderbeke, J. Bierkens, and L. Int Panis, “Health and environmental benefits related to electric vehicle introduction in EU countries,” Transp. Res. Part D Transp. Environ., Vol.33, pp. 26-38, 2014.
-  P. Jochem, S. Babrowski, and W. Fichtner, “Assessing CO2 emissions of electric vehicles in Germany in 2030,” Transp. Res. Part A Policy Pract., Vol.78, pp. 68-83, 2015.
-  S. Ji, C. R. Cherry, M. J. Bechle, Y. Wu, and J. D. Marshall, “Electric vehicles in China: Emissions and health impacts,” Environ. Sci. Technol., Vol.46, No.4, pp. 2018-2024, 2012.
-  D. A. Howey, R. F. Martinez-Botas, B. Cussons, and L. Lytton, “Comparative measurements of the energy consumption of 51 electric, hybrid and internal combustion engine vehicles,” Transp. Res. Part D Transp. Environ., Vol.16, No.6, pp. 459-464, 2011.
-  J. Brady and M. O’Mahony, “Travel to work in Dublin. The potential impacts of electric vehicles on climate change and urban air quality,” Transp. Res. Part D Transp. Environ., Vol.16, No.2, pp. 188-193, 2011.
-  T. Nonaka and M. Nakano, “Carbon Taxation Using LCCO2 and LCC for Clean Energy Vehicles,” Trans. Japan Soc. Mech. Eng., Vol.77, No.Series 3, Np.783, pp. 4024-4032, 2011.
-  B. Zhao, P. Wang, J. Z. Ma, S. Zhu, A. Pozzer, and W. Li, “A high-resolution emission inventory of primary pollutants for the Huabei region, China,” Atmos. Chem. Phys., Vol.12, No.1, pp. 481-501, 2012.
-  R. Nealer and T. P. Hendrickson, “Review of Recent Lifecycle Assessments of Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Electric Vehicles,” Curr. Sustain. Energy Reports, Vol.2, No.3, pp. 66-73, 2015.
-  A. Elgowainy, A. Burnham, M. Wang, J. Molburg, and A. Rousseau, “Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles,” Center for Transportation Research Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago, 2009.
-  Y. Mizuno, Y. Kishita, S. Fukushige, and Y. Umeda, “Envisioning sustainable manufacturing industries of japan,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.8, No.5, pp. 634-643, 2014.
-  T. Nonaka and M. Nakano, “Study of popularization policy of clean energy vehicles using life cycle assessment,” Next Gener. Infrastruct. Syst. eco-cities, pp. 1-6, 2010.
-  D. A. Notter, M. Gauch, R. Widmer, P. Wáger, A. Stamp, R. Zah, and H. J. Althaus, “Contribution of Li-ion batteries to the environmental impact of electric vehicles,” Environ. Sci. Technol., Vol.44, No.17, pp. 6550-6556, 2010.
-  P. Egede, T. Dettmer, C. Herrmann, and S. Kara, “Life Cycle Assessment of Electric Vehicles–A Framework to Consider Influencing Factors,” Procedia CIRP, Vol.29, pp. 233-238, 2015.
-  A. Lucas, C. Alexandra Silva, and R. Costa Neto, “Life cycle analysis of energy supply infrastructure for conventional and electric vehicles,” Energy Policy, Vol.41, pp. 537-547, 2012.
-  International Energy Agency (IEA), World Energy Outlook 2015.pp.602, 614,634, 2015.
-  J. Ayre, “Nissan & Dongfeng Introducing Low-Price EV In China In Next Few Months,” Clean Technica, 2016. [Online]. Available: http://cleantechnica.com/2016/06/23/nissan-dongfeng-introducing-low-price-ev-china-next-months/. [Accessed October 16, 2016]
-  J. L. Sullivan, A. Burnham, and M. Wang, “Energy-Consumption and Carbon-Emission Analysis of Vehicle and Component Manufacturing,” Argonne, 2010.
-  R. Nealer, D. Reichmuth, and D. Anair, “Cleaner Cars from Cradle to Grave: How Electric Cars Beat Gasoline Cars on Lifetime Global Warming Emissions,” Cambridge, 2015.
-  Y. Chen, “China Motorization Trends,” Growing in the Greenhouse: Protecting the Climate by Putting Development First, World Resources Institute, pp. 49-67, 2005.
-  Department for Transport, “National Travel Survey: England 2014,” Department for Transport, London, September 2015.
-  P. Jochem, C. Doll, and W. Fichtner, “External costs of electric vehicles,” Transp. Res. Part D Transp. Environ., Vol.42, pp. 60-76, 2016.
-  K. Aguirre, L. Eisenhardt, C. Lim, B. Nelson, A. Norring, P. Slowik, and N. Tu, “Lifecycle Analysis Comparison of a Battery Electric Vehicle and a Conventional Gasoline Vehicle Kimberly Aguirre,” 2012.
-  IEA, “Electricity Information 2016,” Chapters II.9, II.10, III.381, III.501, 2016.
-  T. Kakudo, “Japan’s Energy Mix and Clean Coal Technology,” Ministry of Economy Trade and Industry (METI), Tokyo, 2015.
-  E. Policies and I. E. A. Countries, “Japan 2016,” 2016.
-  U. J. Becker, T. Becker, and J. Gerlach, “The True Costs of Automobility?: External Costs of Cars Overview on existing estimates in EU-27,” 2012.
-  UCSUSA, “Cleaner Cars from Cradle to Grave,” 2015.
-  C. Samaras and K. Meisterling, “Life Cycle Assessment of Green-house Gas Emissions from Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles?: Implications for Policy Life Cycle Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles: Implications for Policy,” Environmental Science and Technology, Vol.42, No.9, pp. 3170-3176, 2008.
-  H. Lewis, H. Park, and M. Paolini, “Frontier battery development for hybrid vehicles,” Chem. Cent. J., Vol.6, No.Suppl 1, p. S2, 2012.
-  E. S. Division, “A Review of Battery Life-Cycle Analysis?: State of Knowledge and Critical Needs,” Transp. Res., pp. 45, 2010.
-  International Energy Agengy, “Global EV Outlook 2015,” Geo, No.Geo, pp. 9-10, 2015.
-  X. Zhao, O. C. Doering, and W. E. Tyner, “The economic competitiveness and emissions of battery electric vehicles in China,” Appl. Energy, Vol.156, pp. 666-675, 2015.
-  A. Poullikkas, “Sustainable options for electric vehicle technologies,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., Vol.41, 2015.
-  T. P. Hendrickson, O. Kavvada, N. Shah, R. Sathre, and C. D Scown, “Life-cycle implications and supply chain logistics of electric vehicle battery recycling in California,” Environ. Res. Lett., Vol.10, No.1, pp. 14011, 2015.
-  R. Minjares and M. Williams, “A technical summary of Euro 6/VI vehicle emission standards,” The International Council of Clean Transportation, San Francisco, 2016.
-  Z. Yang, H. Wang, Z. Shao, and R. Muncrief, “Review of Beijing’s Comprehensive Motor Vehicle Emission Control Programs,” The International Council on Clean Transportation, Berlin, October 2015.
-  Transport Policy Portal, “China: Light-duty: Fuel Consumption,” http://www.transportpolicy.net/index.php?title=China:_Light-duty:_Fuel_Consumption, [accessed Jun. 13, 2017]
-  P. Mock, “EU CO2 standards for passenger cars and light-commercial vehicles,” Policy Updat., No.January, 2014.
-  International Energy Agency, “Technology Roadmap – High-Efficiency, Low-Emissions Coal-Fired Power Generation,” pp. 1-58, 2012.
-  ECOFYS, “International comparison of fossil power efficiency and CO2 intensity – Update 2014. Final report. Project number: CESNL15173,” p. 95, 2014.
-  B. Tinham, “Next generation engines,” No.March, Transport Engineer Website, http://www.transportengineer.org.uk/article-images/116005/Next_generation_engines.pdf, No March, 2016.
-  Delphi, “Worldwide Emissions Standards,” Delphi Website, https://delphi.com/pdf/emmissions/Delphi-Passenger-Car-Light-Duty-Truck-Emission-Brochure-2012-2013.pdf, pp. 1-103, 2013.
-  B. G. Nichols, K. M. Kockelman, and M. Reiter, “Air quality impacts of electric vehicle adoption in Texas,” Transp. Res. Part D Transp. Environ., Vol.34, pp. 208-218, 2015.
This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internationa License.