IJAT Vol.11 No.4 pp. 572-582
doi: 10.20965/ijat.2017.p0572


Life Cycle Analysis of Emissions from Electric and Gasoline Vehicles in Different Regions

Kamila Romejko and Masaru Nakano

Graduate School of System Design and Management, Keio University
Collaboration Complex, 4-1-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8526, Japan

Corresponding author

November 4, 2016
May 1, 2017
Online released:
June 29, 2017
July 5, 2017
production, electric vehicles, life cycle analysis, health issues, emissions
Electric vehicles (EVs) are considered a promising technology to mitigate air pollution and resource depletion problems. The emissions from the manufacturing process can cause severe health problems like chronic asthma and even death. Automakers and policy makers need to investigate the lifecycle emissions of EVs in different regions and then governments should decide if it is safe to establish EV production facilities in their country or whether it is more appropriate to import finished products. The objective of this study is to evaluate the air pollutant emissions produced by EVs and gasoline vehicles (GVs) during their life cycles under two technology scenarios. Life cycle analysis (LCA) was applied to quantify greenhouse gas (GHG) and non-GHG emissions. We assessed air pollution from vehicles in Japan, China, and the United Kingdom (UK). Results indicate that EVs do not necessarily decrease pollutant emissions. EVs can improve air quality and reduce emissions in countries where electricity is derived from clean energy resources.
Cite this article as:
K. Romejko and M. Nakano, “Life Cycle Analysis of Emissions from Electric and Gasoline Vehicles in Different Regions,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.11 No.4, pp. 572-582, 2017.
Data files:
  1. [1] A. Korzhenevych, N. Dehnen, J. Bröcker, M. Holtkamp, H. Meier, G. Gibson, A. Varna, and V. Cox, “Update of the Handbook on External Costs of Transport,” RICARDO-AEA, London, 2014.
  2. [2] International Energy Agency, “Energy and Air Pollution,” 2016.
  3. [3] T. Mimuro and H. Takanashi, “Fuel Operated Heaters Applied to Electric Vehicles,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.8, No.5, pp. 723-732, 2014.
  4. [4] T. R. Hawkins, B. Singh, G. Majeau-Bettez, and A. H. Stromman, “Comparative Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Conventional and Electric Vehicles,” J. Ind. Ecol., Vol.17, No.1, pp. 53-64, 2013.
  5. [5] International Energy Agency (IEA), “Energy Technology Perspectives 2016,” 2015.
  6. [6] M. Held and M. Baumann, “Assessment of the Environmental Impacts of Electric Vehicle Concepts,” Towards Life Cycle Sustainability Management, pp. 535-546, Springer, 2011.
  7. [7] J. Buekers, M. Van Holderbeke, J. Bierkens, and L. Int Panis, “Health and environmental benefits related to electric vehicle introduction in EU countries,” Transp. Res. Part D Transp. Environ., Vol.33, pp. 26-38, 2014.
  8. [8] P. Jochem, S. Babrowski, and W. Fichtner, “Assessing CO2 emissions of electric vehicles in Germany in 2030,” Transp. Res. Part A Policy Pract., Vol.78, pp. 68-83, 2015.
  9. [9] S. Ji, C. R. Cherry, M. J. Bechle, Y. Wu, and J. D. Marshall, “Electric vehicles in China: Emissions and health impacts,” Environ. Sci. Technol., Vol.46, No.4, pp. 2018-2024, 2012.
  10. [10] D. A. Howey, R. F. Martinez-Botas, B. Cussons, and L. Lytton, “Comparative measurements of the energy consumption of 51 electric, hybrid and internal combustion engine vehicles,” Transp. Res. Part D Transp. Environ., Vol.16, No.6, pp. 459-464, 2011.
  11. [11] J. Brady and M. O’Mahony, “Travel to work in Dublin. The potential impacts of electric vehicles on climate change and urban air quality,” Transp. Res. Part D Transp. Environ., Vol.16, No.2, pp. 188-193, 2011.
  12. [12] T. Nonaka and M. Nakano, “Carbon Taxation Using LCCO2 and LCC for Clean Energy Vehicles,” Trans. Japan Soc. Mech. Eng., Vol.77, No.Series 3, Np.783, pp. 4024-4032, 2011.
  13. [13] B. Zhao, P. Wang, J. Z. Ma, S. Zhu, A. Pozzer, and W. Li, “A high-resolution emission inventory of primary pollutants for the Huabei region, China,” Atmos. Chem. Phys., Vol.12, No.1, pp. 481-501, 2012.
  14. [14] R. Nealer and T. P. Hendrickson, “Review of Recent Lifecycle Assessments of Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Electric Vehicles,” Curr. Sustain. Energy Reports, Vol.2, No.3, pp. 66-73, 2015.
  15. [15] A. Elgowainy, A. Burnham, M. Wang, J. Molburg, and A. Rousseau, “Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles,” Center for Transportation Research Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago, 2009.
  16. [16] Y. Mizuno, Y. Kishita, S. Fukushige, and Y. Umeda, “Envisioning sustainable manufacturing industries of japan,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.8, No.5, pp. 634-643, 2014.
  17. [17] T. Nonaka and M. Nakano, “Study of popularization policy of clean energy vehicles using life cycle assessment,” Next Gener. Infrastruct. Syst. eco-cities, pp. 1-6, 2010.
  18. [18] D. A. Notter, M. Gauch, R. Widmer, P. Wáger, A. Stamp, R. Zah, and H. J. Althaus, “Contribution of Li-ion batteries to the environmental impact of electric vehicles,” Environ. Sci. Technol., Vol.44, No.17, pp. 6550-6556, 2010.
  19. [19] P. Egede, T. Dettmer, C. Herrmann, and S. Kara, “Life Cycle Assessment of Electric Vehicles–A Framework to Consider Influencing Factors,” Procedia CIRP, Vol.29, pp. 233-238, 2015.
  20. [20] A. Lucas, C. Alexandra Silva, and R. Costa Neto, “Life cycle analysis of energy supply infrastructure for conventional and electric vehicles,” Energy Policy, Vol.41, pp. 537-547, 2012.
  21. [21] International Energy Agency (IEA), World Energy Outlook 2015.pp.602, 614,634, 2015.
  22. [22] J. Ayre, “Nissan & Dongfeng Introducing Low-Price EV In China In Next Few Months,” Clean Technica, 2016. [Online]. Available: [Accessed October 16, 2016]
  23. [23] J. L. Sullivan, A. Burnham, and M. Wang, “Energy-Consumption and Carbon-Emission Analysis of Vehicle and Component Manufacturing,” Argonne, 2010.
  24. [24] R. Nealer, D. Reichmuth, and D. Anair, “Cleaner Cars from Cradle to Grave: How Electric Cars Beat Gasoline Cars on Lifetime Global Warming Emissions,” Cambridge, 2015.
  25. [25] Y. Chen, “China Motorization Trends,” Growing in the Greenhouse: Protecting the Climate by Putting Development First, World Resources Institute, pp. 49-67, 2005.
  26. [26] Department for Transport, “National Travel Survey: England 2014,” Department for Transport, London, September 2015.
  27. [27] P. Jochem, C. Doll, and W. Fichtner, “External costs of electric vehicles,” Transp. Res. Part D Transp. Environ., Vol.42, pp. 60-76, 2016.
  28. [28] K. Aguirre, L. Eisenhardt, C. Lim, B. Nelson, A. Norring, P. Slowik, and N. Tu, “Lifecycle Analysis Comparison of a Battery Electric Vehicle and a Conventional Gasoline Vehicle Kimberly Aguirre,” 2012.
  29. [29] IEA, “Electricity Information 2016,” Chapters II.9, II.10, III.381, III.501, 2016.
  30. [30] T. Kakudo, “Japan’s Energy Mix and Clean Coal Technology,” Ministry of Economy Trade and Industry (METI), Tokyo, 2015.
  31. [31] E. Policies and I. E. A. Countries, “Japan 2016,” 2016.
  32. [32] U. J. Becker, T. Becker, and J. Gerlach, “The True Costs of Automobility?: External Costs of Cars Overview on existing estimates in EU-27,” 2012.
  33. [33] UCSUSA, “Cleaner Cars from Cradle to Grave,” 2015.
  34. [34] C. Samaras and K. Meisterling, “Life Cycle Assessment of Green-house Gas Emissions from Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles?: Implications for Policy Life Cycle Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles: Implications for Policy,” Environmental Science and Technology, Vol.42, No.9, pp. 3170-3176, 2008.
  35. [35] H. Lewis, H. Park, and M. Paolini, “Frontier battery development for hybrid vehicles,” Chem. Cent. J., Vol.6, No.Suppl 1, p. S2, 2012.
  36. [36] E. S. Division, “A Review of Battery Life-Cycle Analysis?: State of Knowledge and Critical Needs,” Transp. Res., pp. 45, 2010.
  37. [37] International Energy Agengy, “Global EV Outlook 2015,” Geo, No.Geo, pp. 9-10, 2015.
  38. [38] X. Zhao, O. C. Doering, and W. E. Tyner, “The economic competitiveness and emissions of battery electric vehicles in China,” Appl. Energy, Vol.156, pp. 666-675, 2015.
  39. [39] A. Poullikkas, “Sustainable options for electric vehicle technologies,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., Vol.41, 2015.
  40. [40] T. P. Hendrickson, O. Kavvada, N. Shah, R. Sathre, and C. D Scown, “Life-cycle implications and supply chain logistics of electric vehicle battery recycling in California,” Environ. Res. Lett., Vol.10, No.1, pp. 14011, 2015.
  41. [41] R. Minjares and M. Williams, “A technical summary of Euro 6/VI vehicle emission standards,” The International Council of Clean Transportation, San Francisco, 2016.
  42. [42] Z. Yang, H. Wang, Z. Shao, and R. Muncrief, “Review of Beijing’s Comprehensive Motor Vehicle Emission Control Programs,” The International Council on Clean Transportation, Berlin, October 2015.
  43. [43] Transport Policy Portal, “China: Light-duty: Fuel Consumption,”, [accessed Jun. 13, 2017]
  44. [44] P. Mock, “EU CO2 standards for passenger cars and light-commercial vehicles,” Policy Updat., No.January, 2014.
  45. [45] International Energy Agency, “Technology Roadmap – High-Efficiency, Low-Emissions Coal-Fired Power Generation,” pp. 1-58, 2012.
  46. [46] ECOFYS, “International comparison of fossil power efficiency and CO2 intensity – Update 2014. Final report. Project number: CESNL15173,” p. 95, 2014.
  47. [47] B. Tinham, “Next generation engines,” No.March, Transport Engineer Website,, No March, 2016.
  48. [48] Delphi, “Worldwide Emissions Standards,” Delphi Website,, pp. 1-103, 2013.
  49. [49] B. G. Nichols, K. M. Kockelman, and M. Reiter, “Air quality impacts of electric vehicle adoption in Texas,” Transp. Res. Part D Transp. Environ., Vol.34, pp. 208-218, 2015.

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, Opera.

Last updated on Jul. 19, 2024