Development of a Haptic Device with Wire-Driven Parallel Structure
Carlo Ferraresi†, Carlo De Benedictis, and Francesco Pescarmona
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Politecnico di Torino
Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, Torino 10129, Italy
This study focuses on the specific problems that may arise in the development of a parallel, cable-driven device designed for teleoperations systems utilizing force-reflection feedback. A redundant six degrees-of-freedom structure, actuated by nine wires, is described as a convenient layout for a haptic master for telemanipulation. A methodology for the kinematic and static analysis and the evaluation of the device workspace is described. The condition of force closure is used to find all available poses of the end-effector, thereby defining the workspace, whose characteristics are assessed by opportunely conceived indexes. Typical characteristics of cable and implementations thereof in the device are considered. Regarding the realization of the device, relevant attention is given to the definition of the control logic, which can be complex for parallel devices. The selection of the actuators, crucial in realizing force feedback, is discussed. In particular, pneumatic actuation is considered, verified as the most appropriate method for implementation and force control of the cylinders.
-  P. Batsomboon, S. Tosunoglu, and D. W. Repperger, “A survey of telesensation and teleoperation technology with virtual reality and force reflection capabilities,” Int. J. Model Simul., Vol.20, No.1, pp. 79-88, 2000.
-  W. Conklin and S. Tosunoglu, “Conceptual design of a universal bilateral manual controller,” Proc. of 1996 Florida Conf. on Recent Advances in Robotics, pp. 187-191, 1996.
-  D. A. McAffee and P. Fiorini, “Hand controller design requirements and performance issues in telerobotics,” Proc. of Advanced Robotics, 1991; Proc. of Robots in Unstructured Environments, 91 ICAR, pp. 186-192, 1991.
-  J. S. Albus, R. V. Bostelman, and N. G. Dagalakis, “The NIST ROBOCRANE,” J. Robot Syst., Vol.10, pp. 709-724, 1993.
-  S. Havlik, “Cable robotic manipulators,” 8th Workshop of Robotics in Alpe-Adria-Danube Region (RAAD ’99), pp. 303-308, 1999.
-  S. Kawamura and K. Ito, “A new type of master robot for teleoperation using a radial wire mechanism,” IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems, pp. 55-60, 1993.
-  A. Pott and T. Bruckmann, “Cable-Driven Parallel Robots,” Proc. of the Second Int. Conf. on Cable-Driven Parallel Robots, Mechanisms and Machine Science, Vol.32, 2015.
-  S. Kawamura, W. Choe, S. Tanaka, and S. R. Pandian, “Development of an ultrahigh speed robot FALCON using wire drive system,” Proc. of IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, pp. 215-220, 1995.
-  E. E. Hernández-Martinez, M. Ceccarelli, G. Carbone, C. S. López-Cajún, and J. C. Jáuregui-Correa, “Characterization of a cable-based parallel mechanism for measurement purposes,” Mech. Based Des. Struc., Vol.38, No.1, pp. 25-49, 2010.
-  V. D. Nguyen, “Constructing force-closure grasps in 3D,” Proc. of the 1987 IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, pp. 240-245, 1987.
-  C. Gosselin and S. Bouchard, “A gravity powered mechanism for extending the workspace of a cable-driven parallel mechanism: application to the appearance modelling of objects,” Int. J. of Automation Technology, Vol.4, No.4, pp. 372-379, 2010.
-  C. A. Coello Coello, G. B. Lamont, and D. A. Van Veldhuizen, “Evolutionary Algorithms for Solving Multi-Objective Problems,” Second Edition, Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Series, 2007.
-  R. T. Marler and J. S. Arora, “Survey of multi-objective optimization methods for engineering,” Struct Muldiscip O, Vol.26, No.6, pp. 369-395, 2004.
-  G. Carbone, M. Ceccarelli, P. J. Oliveira, and S. F. P. Saramago, “An optimum path planning for Cassino Parallel Manipulator by using inverse dynamics,” Robotica, Vol.26, No.2, pp. 229-239, 2008.
-  J. Arata and H. Fujimoto, “Redundant parallel mechanism for haptic applications,” Int. J. of Automation Technology, Vol.4, No.4, pp. 338-345, 2010.
-  C. Ferraresi, S. Pastorelli, and F. Pescarmona, “Workspace analysis and design criteria of 6 d.o.f. wire parallel structures,” Proc. of 10th Int. Workshop on Robotics in Alpe-Adria-Danube Region RAAD ’01, 2001.
-  C. Ferraresi, M. Paoloni, S. Pastorelli, and F. Pescarmona, “A new 6-DOF parallel robotic structure actuated by wires: The WiRo-6.3,” J. Robot Syst., Vol.21, No.11, pp. 581-595, 2004.
-  C. Ferraresi, M. Paoloni, and F. Pescarmona, “A new methodology for the determination of the workspace of six-DOF redundant parallel structures actuated by nine wires,” Robotica, Vol.25, No.1, pp. 113-120, 2007.
-  C. M. Gosselin, “Dexterity indices for planar and spatial robotic manipulators,” Proc., IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, Vol.1, pp. 650-655, 1990.
-  C. C. Gosselin and J. J. Angeles, “A Global Performance Index for the Kinematic Optimization of Robotic Manipulators,” ASME J. Mech. Des., Vol.113, No.3, pp. 220-226, 1991.
-  G. Carbone and M. Ceccarelli, “Comparison of indices for stiffness performance evaluation,” Front Mech. Eng., Vol.5, No.3, pp. 270-278, 2010.
-  A. Gupta, M. K. O’Malley, V. Patoglu, and C. Burgar, “Design, control and performance of RiceWrist: A force feedback wrist exoskeleton for rehabilitation and training,” Int. J. Robot Res., Vol.27, No.2, pp. 233-251, 2008.
-  C. Ferraresi, M. Carello, F. Pescarmona, and R. Grassi, “Wire-driven pneumatic actuation of a new 6-dof haptic master,” Proc. of ESDA2006 8th Biennial ASME Conf. on Engineering Systems Design and Analysis, 2006.
-  L. F. E. Hoppe, “Performance improvement of Dyneema® in ropes,” Proc. of OCEANS ’97 MTS/IEEE Conf., pp. 314-318, 1997.
-  M. Takaiwa and T. Noritsugu, “Positioning control of pneumatic parallel manipulator,” Int. J. of Automation Technology, Vol.2, No.1, pp. 49-55, 2008.
-  T. Kosaki, Y. Morinaga, and M. Sano, “Prototype development of a parallel link robot actuate by pneumatic linear drives with variable inclination mechanism,” Int. J. of Automation Technology, Vol.8, No.2, pp. 169-176, 2014.
-  G. Belforte, A. Manuello Bertetto, and L. Mazza, “Test rig for friction force measurements in pneumatic components and seals,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. J., Vol.227, No.1, pp. 43-59, 2013.
-  C. Ferraresi, A. Manuello Bertetto, and H. R. Ziarati Niasar, “Development of an electropneumatic device for remotely sensed manipulation,” UK Mechatronics Forum Int. Conf., pp. 811-816, 1998.
-  C. Ferraresi, M. Carello, F. Pescarmona, and R. Grassi, “Pneumatic actuation of a 6-DOF haptic device,” The Ninth Scandinavian Int. Conf. on Fluid Power, SICFP’05, 2005.
This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internationa License.