Evaluation of Additive Manufacturing Processes in Fabrication of Personalized Robot
Shushu Wang†, Rakshith Badarinath, El-Amine Lehtihet, and Vittaldas Prabhu
The Harold and Inge Marcus Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering,
The Pennsylvania State University
University Park, PA 16802, USA
Customer participation in the design stage of creating personalized products is increasing. Additive manufacturing (AM) has become a popular enabler of personalization. In this study, we evaluate the fabrication of an open-source robot arm in terms of cost, build time, dimensional and locational accuracy, end-effector accuracy, and mechanical properties. The mechanical components of the table-top robot were fabricated using two different AM processes of fused deposition modeling (FDM) and material jetting (polymer jetting or PolyJet). A reduction of infill density by 50% in the FDM process slightly decreased the building time, material cost, and tensile strength, but induced a 95% reduction in yield strength. A simulation of the mechanical assembly using the CAD models for the robot and the expected tolerances of the components estimated the end-effector positioning accuracy as 0.01–0.22 mm. The 3D printed robot arm was redesigned and fabricated using the best evaluated process in this study.
-  S. M. Davis, “From “future perfect”: Mass customizing,” Planning review, Vol.17, No.2, pp. 16-21, 1989.
-  A. M. Fiore, L. Seung-Eun, and G. Kunz, “Psychographic variables affecting willingness to use body-scanning,” J. of Business and Management, Vol.9, No.3, pp. 271, 2003.
-  F. Salvador , P. M. De Holan, and F. T. Piller, “Cracking the code of mass customization,” MIT Sloan management review, Vol.50, No.3, pp. 71, 2009.
-  K. Jiang, H. L. Lee, and R. W. Seifert, “Satisfying customer preferences via mass customization and mass production,” IIE Trans., Vol.38, No.1, pp. 25-38, 2006.
-  A. M. Kaplan and M. Haenlein, “Toward a parsimonious definition of traditional and electronic mass customization,” J. of product innovation management, Vol.23, No.2, pp. 168-182, 2006.
-  F. Salvador, P. M. De Holan, and F. T. Piller, “Cracking the code of mass customization,” MIT Sloan management review, Vol.50, No.3, pp. 71, 2009.
-  P. McIntosh, “White privilege and male privilege,” The Teacher in American Society: A Critical Anthology, p. 121, 2010.
-  A. Kumar, “Mass customization: manufacturing issues and taxonomic analyses.” Int. J. of Flexible Manufacturing Systems, Vol.19, No.4, pp. 625-629, 2007.
-  A. T. Sidambe, “Biocompatibility of advanced manufactured titanium implants – A review,” Materials, Vol.7, No.12, pp. 8168-8188, 2014.
-  http://www.stratasys.com/ [accessed Mar. 15, 2016]
-  U. I. Chung and Y. Tei, “Manufacturing of artificial bones using 3D inkjet printing technology,” Int. J. of Automation Technology, Vol.3, No.5, pp. 509-513, 2009.
-  S. H. Ahn, M. Montero, D. Odell, S. Roundy, and P. K. Wright, “Anisotropic material properties of fused deposition modeling ABS,” Rapid Prototyping J., Vol.8, No.4, pp. 248-257, 2002.
-  I. Ainsworth, M. Ristic, and D. Brujic, “CAD-based measurement path planning for free-form shapes using contact probes,” The Int. J. of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol.16, No.1, pp. 23-31, 2000.
-  M. Mahesh, Y. S. Wong, J. Y. H. Fuh, and H. T. Loh, “Benchmarking for comparative evaluation of RP systems and processes,” Rapid Prototyping J., Vol.10, No.2, pp. 123-135, 2004.
-  O. M. F. Marwah, S. Sharif, and M. Ibrahim, “Direct Fabrication of IC Sacrificial Patterns via Rapid Prototyping Approaches,” Int. J. of Automation Technology, Vol.6, No.5, pp. 570-575, 2012.
-  G. D. Kim and J. H. Sung, “Bench mark test on rapid prototyping processes and machines for functional prototypes,” J. of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, Vol.23, No.6, pp. 187-195, 2006.
-  G. D. Kim and Y. T. Oh, “A benchmark study on rapid prototyping processes and machines: quantitative comparisons of mechanical properties, accuracy, roughness, speed, and material cost,” Proc. of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: J. of Engineering Manufacture, Vol.222, No.2, pp. 201-215, 2008.
-  L. Baich, G. Manogharan, and H. Marie, “Study of infill print design on production cost-time of 3D printed ABS parts,” Int. J. of Rapid Manufacturing, Vol.5, No.3-4, pp. 308-319, 2015.
-  http://my3dmatter.com/influence-infill-layer-height-pattern/ [accessed Mar. 15, 2016]
-  P. Corke, “Robotics, vision and control: fundamental algorithms in MATLAB,” Springer, Vol.73, 2011.
-  G. W. Melenka, J. S. Schofield, M. R. Dawson, and J. P. Carey, “Evaluation of dimensional accuracy and material properties of the MakerBot 3D desktop printer,” Rapid Prototyping J., Vol.21, No.5, pp. 618-627, 2015.
-  http://www.stratasys.com/˜/media/Main/Files/SDS/Rigid-Opaque-Materials/SDS-Objet-VeroBlue-RGD840-US.pdf [accessed Mar. 15, 2016]
-  S, Wang, R. Badarinath, V. V. Prabhu, E. A. Lehtihet, “Evaluation of additive manufacturing processes in fabrication of a personalized robot,” Paper presented at the Advances in Production Management Systems, APMS International Conference 2016, Brazil, South America, September, 2016.
This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.