Deposition Conditions for Laser Formation Processes with Filler Wire
Naoki Seto† and Hiroshi Sato
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST)
1-2-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8564, Japan
Recently, studies on three-dimensional (3D) formation technology, which is capable of forming components directly, have become increasingly popular as a part of additive manufacturing technologies. However, a very limited amount of information has been published about its processing conditions or settings. In this study, we have prototyped a wire-feeding type 3D laser deposition equipment to publish information about adjusting the deposition conditions and examining the deposition characteristics, which can be used as a reference by engineers who carry out 3D formations. We hope that this study can contribute significantly to the progress in additive manufacturing technologies.
Using the proposed equipment, we determined the deposition conditions under which the melting of a specimen can be limited to a shallow depth, while making depositions of sufficient height on the specimen. These deposition conditions are a laser power of 2.0 kW, a laser traveling speed of 1.5 m/min, and a wire-feeding speed of 7.7 m/min. Further, we confirmed that slight tuning of these deposition conditions even allows for 10-layer depositions and depositions containing curved lines.
-  E. Sachs, M. Cima, J. Cornie, D. Brancazio, J. Bredt, A. Curodeau, T. Fan, S. Khanuja, A. Lauder, J. Lee, and S. Michaels, “Three-Dimensional Printing: The Physics and Implications of Additive Manufacturing,” CIRP Annals – Manufacturing Technology, Vol.42, Issue 1, pp. 257-260, 1993.
-  E. E. Meng Lim and C. H. Menq, “ntegrated planning for precision machining of complex surfaces. Part 1: Cutting-path and feedrate optimization,” Int. J. of Machine Tools and Manufacture, Vol.37, Issue 1, pp. 61-75, 1997.
-  V. Vazquez and T. Altan, “Die design for flashless forging of complex parts,” J. of Materials Processing Technology, Vol.98, Issue 1, pp. 81-89, 2000.
-  F. Rengier, A. Mehndiratta, H. von Tengg-Kobligk, C. M. Zechmann, R. Unterhinninghofen, H.-U. Kauczor, and F. L. Giesel, “3D printing based on imaging data: review of medical applications,” Int. J. of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery, Vol.5, Issue 4, pp. 335-341, 2010.
-  J. Griffey, “Chapter 5: 3-D Printers,” Library Technology Reports, Vol.50, No.5, July 2014.
-  J. Calì, D. A. Calian, C. Amati, R. Kleinberger, A. Steed, J. Kautz, and T. Weyrich, “3D-printing of non-assembly, articulated models,” J. ACM Trans. on Graphics (TOG) – Proc. of ACM SIGGRAPH Asia, Vol.31, Issue 6, November 2012, Article No.130, 2012.
-  T. Horii, M. Ishikawa, S. Kirihara, Y. Miyamoto, and N. Yamanaka, “Development of Freeform Fabrication of Metals by Three Diminsional Micro-Welding,” Solid State Phenomena, Vol.127, pp. 189-194, 2007.
-  C. Y. Konga, R. J. Scudamorea, and J. Allenb, “High-rate laser metal deposition of Inconel 718 component using low heat-input approach,” Physics Procedia, Vol.5, Part A, pp. 379-386, 2010.
-  D. M. Rosseler, “An Introduction to the Laser Processing of Materials,” The Industrial Laser Annual Hand Book, Vol.16, 1986.
-  C. Schofield, “Guide to Dust Explosion Prevention and Protection, Part 1: Venting,” Guide or Reference; published in 1988.
-  A. Matsunawa, N. Seto, J. D. Kim, M. Mizutani, and S. Katayama, “Dynamics of keyhole and molten pool in high-power CO2 laser welding,” SPIE Proc., Vol.3888, Basics of Laser Material Processing I, 1999.
-  A. Kaplan, “A model of deep penetration laser welding based on calculation of the keyhole profile,” J. of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol.27, No.9.
-  A. Monem and E. Batahgy, “Effect of laser welding parameters on fusion zone shape and solidification structure of austenitic stainless steels,” Materials Letters, Vol.32, Issues 2–3, pp. 155-163, 1997.
-  N. Seto, S. Katayama, and A. Matsunawa, “High-speed simultaneous observation of plasma and keyhole behavior during high power CO2 laser welding: Effect of shielding gas on porosity formation,” J. of Laser Applications, Vol.12, Issue 6, pp. 243-255, 2000.
-  A. Matsunawa and V. Semak, “The simulation of front keyhole wall dynamics during laser welding,” J. of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol.30, No.5.
-  R. Fabbro, S. Slimani, F. Coste, and F. Briand, “Study of keyhole behaviour for full penetration Nd-Yag CW laser welding,” J. of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol.38, No.12.
-  (for example) A. E. Tontowi and T. H. C. Childs, “Density prediction of crystalline polymer sintered parts at various powder bed temperatures,” Rapid Prototyping J., Vol.7, Issue 3, 1995.
-  (for example) G. P. Dinda, A. K. Dasgupta, J. Mazumder, “Laser aided direct metal deposition of Inconel 625 superalloy: Microstructural evolution and thermal stability,” Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol.509, Issues 1–2, pp. 98-104, 2009.
-  (for example) A. Mathieu, R. Shabadi, A. Deschamps, M. Suery, S. Matteï, D. Grevey, and E. Cicala, “Dissimilar material joining using laser (aluminum to steel using zincbased filler wire),” Optics & Laser Technology, Vol.39, Issue 3, pp. 652–661, 2007.
-  A. Heralic, “Monitoring and control of robotized laser metal-wire deposition,” Doctoral thesis, Chalmers University, 2012.
-  D. Ding, Z. Pan, D. Cuiri, and H. Li, “Wire-feed additive manufacturing of metal components: technologies, developments and future interests,” J. of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, May 2015.
-  K. Hafez and S. Katayama, “Fiber laser welding of AISI 304 stainless steel plates,” Quarterly J. of the Japan Welding Society, Vol.27, No.2, pp. 69-73, 2009.
-  T. Abe and H. Sasahara, “Development of the shell structures fabrication CAM system for direct metal lamination using arc discharge – lamination height error compensation by torch feed speed control –,” Int. J. of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, Vol.16, Issue 1, pp. 171-176, 2015.
-  T. Abe and H. Sasahara, “Development of the Shell Structures Fabrication CAM System for Direct Metal Lamination Using Arc Discharge – Lamination Height Error Compensation by Torch Feed Speed Control –,” Int. J. of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, Vol.16, No.1, pp. 171-176, Jan. 2015.
-  Mutoh Industries co. ltd., “Mutoh Industries unveils Value Arc MA5000-S1 metal arc welding 3D printer,” URL: http://www.3ders.org/articles/20150727-mutoh-industries-unveils-value-arc-ma5000-s1-metal-arc-welding-3d-printer.html [accessed October 22, 2016]
This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internationa License.