Experimental Analysis of Glass Drilling with Ultrashort Pulse Lasers
Rin Shinomoto*,†, Yusuke Ito*, Toru Kizaki*, Kentaro Tatsukoshi**, Yasuji Fukasawa**, Keisuke Nagato*, Naohiko Sugita*, and Mamoru Mitsuishi*
*School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo
7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan
**Asahi Glass Co., Ltd.
1-1 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan
Ultrashort pulse laser processing that facilitates high-speed and fine processing of glass materials has received considerable attention in recent years, despite mechanical processing or etching having been the mainstream methods. However, the physical mechanisms of this technique and the influence of various parameters, such as the processing conditions and physical properties of the processed material, on generated shapes are not yet fully understood. In this work, we comprehensively investigated the influence of various parameters of ultrashort pulse lasers on the processing mechanisms through experiments conducted by changing the wavelength, pulse width, repetition rate, and pulse energy over a wide range. The physical effects of the laser parameters on the reflection of light and heat generation were discussed by analyzing the experimental results, and the influence of the parameters on the generated shapes, processing speed, and saturated depth was clarified. In addition, cracks around the ablated area, which are one of the problems concerning glass processing with ultrashort pulse lasers, were observed, and the influence of the pulse energy on the cracks was evaluated. It is expected that this research will allow for a thorough understanding of the laser parameters that are suitable for glass processing and widen the range of laser processing applications.
-  V. Sukumaran et al., “Through-package-via formation and metallization of glass interposers,” 2010 Proc. 60th Electronic Components and Technology Conf. (ECTC), pp. 557-563, 2010.
-  R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nature photonics, Vol.2, pp. 219-225, 2008.
-  Y. Bellouard, A. Said, M. Dugan, and P. Bado, “Fabrication of high-aspect ratio, micro-fluidic channels and tunnels using femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Optics Express, Vol.12, Issue 10, pp. 2120-2129, 2004.
-  Y. Liao et al., “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab on a Chip, Vol.12, No.4, pp. 746-749, 2012.
-  L. Shah, A. Y. Arai, S. M. Eaton, and P. R. Herman, “Waveguide writing in fused silica with a femtosecond fiber laser at 522 nm and 1 MHz repetition rate,” Optics Express, Vol.13, Issue 6, pp. 1999-2006, 2005.
-  C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. García, and E. Mazur, “Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy,” Optics Letters, Vol.26, Issue 2, pp. 93-95, 2001.
-  T. Matsumura and T. Ono, “Cutting process of glass with inclined ball end mill,” J. of Materials Proc. Technology, Vol.200, Issues 1-3, pp. 356-363, May 2008.
-  X. Li, T. Abe, and M. Esashi, “Deep reactive ion etching of Pyrex glass using SF6 plasma,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, Vol.87, Issue 3, pp. 139-145, January 2001.
-  A. V. Kulkarni, V. K. Jain, and K. A. Misra, “Electrochemical spark micromachining: Present scenario,” Int. J. of Automation Technology, Vol.5, No.1, pp. 52-59, 2011.
-  B. N. Chichkov, C. Momma, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids,” Applied Physics A, Vol.63, Issue 2, pp. 109-115, August 1996.
-  D. J. Hwang, T. Y. Choi, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Liquid-assisted femtosecond laser drilling of straight and three-dimensional microchannels in glass,” Applied Physics A, Vol.79, No.3, pp. 605-612, 2004.
-  E. G. Gamaly, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Ablation of solids by femtosecond lasers: Ablation mechanism and ablation thresholds for metals and dielectrics,” Physics of Plasmas, Vol.9, No.3, pp. 949-957, 2002.
-  A. Kaiser, B. Rethfeld, M. Vicanek, and G. Simon, “Microscopic processes in dielectrics under irradiation by subpicosecond laser pulses,” Physical Review B, Vol.61, No.17, 11437, 2000.
-  S. S. Mao et al., “Dynamics of femtosecond laser interactions with dielectrics,” Applied Physics A, Vol.79, Issue 7, pp. 1695-1709, November 2004.
-  W. Schulz, U. Eppelt, and R. Poprawe, “Review on laser drilling I. Fundamentals, modeling, and simulation,” J. Laser Appl., Vol.25, No.1, 012006, 2013.
-  P. Balling and J. Schou, “Femtosecond-laser ablation dynamics of dielectrics: basics and applications for thin films,” Reports on Progress in Physics, Vo.76, No.3, 036502, 2013.
-  M. Sakakura et al., “Observation of laser-induced stress waves and mechanism of structural changes inside rock-salt crystals,” Optics express, Vol.19, No.18, pp. 17780-17789, 2011.
-  U. Eppelt, S. Russ, C. Hartmann, M. Sun, C. Siebert, and W. Schulz, “Diagnostic and simulation of ps-laser glass cutting,” Int. Congress on Applications of Lasers & Electro Optics (ICALEO), Vol.31, 2012.
-  M. Sun et al., “Numerical analysis of laser ablation and damage in glass with multiple picosecond laser pulses,” Optics Express, Vo.21, Issue 7, pp. 7858-7867, 2013.
-  M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials,” J. of applied physics, Vol.85, No.9, pp. 6803-6810, 1999.
-  J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, C. Méndez, and L. Roso, “Saturation of ablation channels micro-machined in fused silica with many femtosecond laser pulses,” Optics Express, Vol.14, No.3, pp. 1329-1338, 2006.
-  A. C. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, “Short-pulse laser damage in transparent materials as a function of pulse duration,” Physical Review Letters, Vol.82, No.19, pp. 3883-3886, 1999.
-  H. E. J. Bennett and J. O. Porteus, “Relation between surface roughness and specular reflectance at normal incidence,” JOSA, Vol.51, No.2, pp. 123-129, 1961.
-  S. M. Eaton et al., “Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate,” Optics Express, Vol.13, Issue 12, pp. 4708-4716, 2005.
-  Y. Shuto, S. Yanagi, S. Asakawa, M. Kobayashi, and R. Nagase, “Evaluation of high-temperature absorption coefficients of optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, Vol.16, Issue 4, pp. 1008-1010, 2004.
-  M. Sakakura, M. Shimizu, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Temperature distribution and modification mechanism inside glass with heat accumulation during 250 kHz irradiation of femtosecond laser pulse,” Applied Physics Letters, Vol.93, No.23, 231112, 2008.
This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.