Time Series Analyses of the Responses to Sensory Stimuli of Children with Severe and Multiple Disabilities
Eiko Matsuda*, Tatsuki Takenaga**, Mamoru Iwabuchi***, and Kenryu Nakamura**
*Interfaculty Initiative in Information Studies, The University of Tokyo
7-3-1 Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
**Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo
4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904, Japan
***School of Human Sciences, Waseda University
2-579-15 Mikajima, Tokorozawa city, Saitama 359-1192, Japan
Severe and multiple disabilities (SMD) refers to the simultaneous occurrence of intellectual and physical problems. SMD in children is difficult to assess, as they often do not have the proper language or bodily responses to represent their feelings. In this study, we propose a methodology for evaluating reactions of children with SMD to sensory stimuli that does not rely on observations by humans, but rather is based on automatic detection of video-recorded data and quantification by time-series analyses. We present two case studies with typical participants: one with large body movements (P1) and another with subtle body movements (P2). For P1, it was observed that he showed larger bodily movements just before the onset of tactile stimuli, while he became silent for approximately 10 s after the onset, with the stimuli causing him to reduce self-stimulatory behavior and pay attention to his external environment. For P2, two quantitative methodologies – correlation coefficient and Granger causality – were adopted, to compare behavioral difference during the presentation of either sour or sweet taste stimuli. For the sweet conditions, the movement of the mouth was considered to be generated by some internal causes. Through these experiments, we confirmed the authenticity of assessments made by the participants’ caregivers, and also revealed otherwise unseen behavioral patterns and structures.
-  B. K. Shapiro, “Developmental Delay and intellectual disability,” M. L. Batshaw, N. J. Roizen, and G. R. Lotrecchiano (Eds.), “Children with disabilities (7th ed.),” pp. 291-306, Brookes Pub, 2013.
-  S. M. Bruce and S. E. Ivy, “Severe and Multiple Disabilities,” J. M. Kauffman, D. P. Hallahan, and P. C. Pullen (Eds.), “Handbook of Special Education,” pp. 411-427, Routledge, 2017.
-  R. M. Gargiulo and E. C. Bouck, “Special Education in Contemporary Society: An Introduction to Exceptionality (5th ed.),” SAGE Publications, 2015.
-  J. J. McDonnell, M. L. Hardman, and A. P. McDonnell, “Introduction to Persons with Moderate and Severe Disabilities: Educational and Social Issues (2nd ed.),” Pearson, 2002.
-  E. G. C. van den Broek, C. G. C. Janssen, T. van Ramshorst, and L. Deen, “Visual impairments in people with severe and profound multiple disabilities: an inventory of visual functioning,” J. of Intellectual Disability Research, Vol.50, Part.6, pp. 470-475, 2006.
-  B. E. Geddie, M. J. Bina, and M. M. Miller, “Vision and Visual Impairment,” M. L. Batshaw, N. J. Roizen, and G. R. Lotrecchiano (Eds.), “Children with Disabilities (7th ed.),” Brookes Pub, 2013.
-  K. Iwasaki and M. B. Holm, “Sensory treatment for the reduction of stereotypic behaviors in persons with severe multiple disabilities,” Occupation, Participation, and Health, Vol.9, Issue 3 pp. 170-183, 1989.
-  L. J. Epstein, M. T. Taubman, and O. I. Lovaas, “Changes in self-stimulatory behaviors with treatment,” J. of Abnormal Child Psychology, Vol.13, No.2, pp. 281-293, 1985.
-  E. A. Smith and R. van Houten, “A comparison of the characteristics of self-stimulatory behaviors in “normal” children and children with developmental delays,” Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Vol.17, No.4, pp. 253-268, 1996.
-  S. A. Smith, B. Press, K. P. Koenig, and M. Kinnealey, “Effects of sensory integration intervention on self-stimulating and self-injurious behaviors,” The American J. of Occupational Therapy, Vol.59, No.4, pp. 418-425, 2005.
-  G. Mertz Cowell and T. Attwood, “Help for the Child with Asperger’s Syndrome,” Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2004.
-  I. G. DeLeon, B. A. Iwata, J. Conners, and M. D. Wallace, “Examination of ambiguous stimulus preferences with duration-based measures,” J. of Applied Behavior Analysis, Vol.32, No.1, pp. 111-114, 1999.
-  J. Virues-Ortega, K. Pritchard, R. L. Grant, S. North, C. Hurtado-Parrado, M. S. H. Joee, B. Temple, F. Julio, and C. T. Yu, “Clinic al decision making and preference assessment for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities,” American J. of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, Vol.119, No.2, pp. 151-170, 2014.
-  I. G. DeLeon and B. A. Iwata, “Evaluation of a multiple-stimulus presentation format for assessing reinforcer preferences,” J. of Applied Behavior Analysis, Vol.29, No.4, pp. 519-533, 1996.
-  C. Nelson, J. van Dijk, A. P. McDonnell, and K. Thompson, “A framework for understanding young children with severe multiple disabilities: The van dijk approach to assessment,” Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, Vol.27, No.2, pp. 97-111, 2002.
-  T. M. Achenbach and T. M. Ruffle, “The child behavior checklist and related forms for assessing behavioral/emotional problems and competencies,” Pediatrics in Review, Vol.21, No.8, pp. 265-271, 2000.
-  N. Eisenberg, A. Cumberland, T. L. Spinrad, R. A. Fabes, S. A. Shepard, M. Reiser, B. C. Murphy, S. H. Losoya, and I. K. Guthrie, “The relations of regulation and emotionality to children’s externalizing and internalizing problem behavior,” Child Development, Vol.72, No.4, pp. 1112-1134, 2001.
-  S. C. Homaei, H. Barone, R. Kleppe, N. Betari, A. Reif, and J. Haavik, “ADHD symptoms in neurometabolic diseases: Underlying mechanisms and clinical implications,” Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 2021.
-  T. J. Dekkers, E. de Water, and A. Scheres, “Impulsive and risky decision-making in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): The need for a developmental perspective,” Current Opinion in Psychology, Vol.44, pp. 330-336, 2021.
-  A. Kilincaslan and N. M. Mukaddes, “Pervasive developmental disorders in individuals with cerebral palsy,” Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, Vol.51, No.4, pp. 289-294, 2009.
-  T. Takenaga, E. Matsuda, R. Matsumura, M. Iwabuchi, and K. Nakamura, “Visualizing and orienting exploratory behavior of people with severe and multiple disabilities,” Proc. of the Symp. on Human Interface 2016, pp. 439-442, 2016.
-  E. M. Graham, S. M. Bradley, G. S. Shirali, C. B. Hills, and A. M. Atz, “Effectiveness of cardiac surgery in trisomies 13 and 18 (from the pediatric cardiac care consortium),” The American J. of Cardiology, Vol.93, No.6, pp. 801-803, 2004.
-  R. Tal, Y. Schwartz, J. Zolotushko, and A. Lorber, “Trisomy 13 (patau syndrome) with tetralogy of Fallot – to treat or not to treat?,” Int. J. of Cardiology, Vol.172, No.1, pp. 175-176, 2014.
-  G. Yang, M. Iwabuchi, R. Hirabayashi, K. Nakamura, K. Taniguchi, S. Sano, and T. Aoki, “Motion history to improve communication and switch access for people with severe and multiple disabilities,” Proc. of The 16th Int. ACM SIGACCESS Conf. on Computers and Accessibility, pp. 309-310, 2014.
-  M. Iwabuchi, G. Yang, K. Taniguchi, S. Sano, T. Aoki, and K. Nakamura, “Visualizing motion history for investigating the voluntary movement and cognition of people with severe and multiple disabilities, computers helping people with special needs,” Proc. of 14th Int. Conf., ICCHP, pp. 238-243, 2014.
-  C. W. J. Granger, “Investigating causal relations by econometric models and cross-spectral methods,” Econometrica, Vol.37, No.3, pp. 424-438, 1969.
-  A. K. Seth, A. B. Barrett, and L. Barnett, “Granger causality analysis in neuroscience and neuroimaging,” The J. of Neuroscience, Vol.35, Issue 8, pp. 3293-3297, 2015.
This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internationa License.