Generated Trajectory of Extended Lateral Guided Sensor Steering Mechanism for Steered Autonomous Vehicles in Real World Environments
Department of Computer Science, National Defense Academy of Japan
1-10-20 Hashirimizu, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 239-8686, Japan
This paper discusses the generated trajectory of an extended lateral guided sensor steering mechanism (SSM) method for a steered autonomous vehicle moving in a real world environment. In a previous study, an extended SSM was applied to the Smart Dump 9 and AR Chair robots for following preset waypoints on a map. These studies showed only the schematic idea of the method; the precise performance of the generated trajectory was not shown. This paper compares the Smart Dump 9 robot with a newly developed AR Skipper robot; these robots participated in the Tsukuba Challenge in 2015 and 2016, respectively. Finally, experimental data from the Tsukuba Challenge 2016 demonstrates the advantages of the extended SSM and developed control system.
-  S. Thrun et al., “Stanley: The Robot that Won the DARPA Grand Challenge,” J. of Field Robotics, Vol.23, No.9, pp. 661-692, 2006.
-  C. Urmson et al., “Autonomous Driving in Urban Environments: Boss and the Urban Challenge,” J. of Field Robotics, Vol.25, No.8, pp. 425-466, 2008.
-  K. Yamauchi, N. Akai, R. Unai, K. Inoue, and K. Ozaki, “Person Detection Method Based on Color Layout in Real World Robot Challenge 2013,” J. of the Robotics and Mechatronics, Vol.26, No.2, pp. 151-157, 2014.
-  K. Yamauchi, N. Akai, and K. Ozaki, “Color Extraction Using Multiple Photographs Taken with Different Exposure Time in RWRC,” J. of the Robotics and Mechatronics, Vol.26, No.2, pp. 158-165, 2014.
-  J. Eguchi and K. Ozaki, “Development of the Autonomous Mobile Robot for Target-Searching in Urban Areas in the Tsukuba Challenge 2013,” J. of the Robotics and Mechatronics, Vol.26, No.2, pp. 166-176, 2014.
-  S. A. Rahok, H. Oneda, A. Tanaka, and K. Ozaki, “A Robust Navigation Method for Mobile Robots in Real-World Environment,” J. of the Robotics and Mechatronics, Vol.26, No.2, pp. 177-184, 2014.
-  M. Saito, K. Kiuchi, S. Shogo, T. Yokota, Y. Fujino, T. Saito, and Y. Kuroda, “Pre-Driving Needless System for Autonomous Mobile Robots Navigation in Real World Robot Challenge 2013,” J. of the Robotics and Mechatronics, Vol.26, No.2, pp. 185-195, 2014.
-  K. Okawa, “Three Tiered Self-Localization of Two Position Estimation Using Three Dimensional Environment Map and Gyro-Odometry,” J. of the Robotics and Mechatronics, Vol.26, No.2, pp. 196-203, 2014.
-  T. Suzuki, M. Kitamura, Y. Amano, and N. Kubo, “Autonomous Navigation of a Mobile Robot Based on GNSS/DR Integration in Outdoor Environments,” J. of the Robotics and Mechatronics, Vol.26, No.2, pp. 214-224, 2014.
-  T. Shioya, K. Kogure, and N. Ohta, “Minimal Autonomous Mover – MG-11 for Tsukuba Challenge –,” J. of the Robotics and Mechatronics, Vol.26, No.2, pp. 225-235, 2014.
-  F. Moosmann and C. Stiller, “Joint Self-Localization and Tracking of Generic Objects in 3D Range Data,” Proc. of 2013 IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, pp. 1138-1144, 2014.
-  B. E. Boser, I. Guyon, and V. Vanik, “A Training algorithm for optimal margin classifiers,” Proc. of the Fifth Annual Workshop on Computational Learning Theory, pp. 144-152, 1992.
-  Y. Takita, “High-speed Driving of a Lateral Guided Vehicle with Sensor Steering Mechanism,” Proc. of 1999 ASME Design Engineering Technical Conf., DETC99/MOVIC-8322, 1999.
-  Y. Takita, S. Ohkawa, and H. Date, “Recognition Method Applied to Smart Dump 9 Using Multi-Beam 3D LiDAR for the Tsukuba Challenge,” J. of the Robotics and Mechatronics, Vol.28, No.4, pp. 451-460, 2016.
-  R. C. Coulter, “Implementation of the Pure Pursuit Path Tracking Algorithm,” report within CMU-RI-TR-92-01, Robotics Institute CMU, 1992.
-  S. Kato, E. Takeuchi, Y. Ishiguro, Y. Ninomiya, K. Takeda, and T. Hamada, “An Open Approach to Autonomous Vehicles,” IEEE Micro, Vol.35, No.6, pp. 60-69, 2015.
-  C. Cortes and V. Vapnik, “Support-Vector Networks,” Machine Learning, Vol.20, pp. 273-297, 1995.
-  Y. Takita and H. Date, “Actualized Autonomous Functions by Smart Dump 3,” J. of the Society Instrument and Control Engineers, Vol.49, No.9, pp. 636-636, 2010.
-  H. Date and Y. Takita, “Real World Experiments of Autonomous Mobile Robot Smart Dump – Influence and Countermeasure of Human Crowd Behavior in a Pedestrian Environment –,” J. of the Robotics Society of Japan, Vol.30, No.3, pp. 305-313, 2012.
-  J. Kikuchi, H. Date, S. Ohkawa, V. Labat, and Y. Taktia, “Hierarchical approach using camera and LIDAR for searching people by autonomous mobile robot,” System Integration 2013, 1A2-2, 2013.
-  H. Date, S. Ohkawa, Y. Takita, and J. Kikuchi, “High Precision Localization of Mobile Robot Using LIDAR Intensity of Surface,” Trans. of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers, Series C, Vol.79, No.806, pp. 3389-3398, 2013.
-  S. Ohkawa, Y. Takita, H. Date, and K. Kobayashi, “Development of Autonomous Mobile Robot Using Articulated Steering Vehicle and Lateral Guiding Method,” J. of the Robotics and Mechatronics, Vol.27, No.4, pp. 337-345, 2015.