Human Detecting and Following Mobile Robot Using a Laser Range Sensor
Jianzhao Cai*,** and Takafumi Matsumaru**
*South China University of Technology, Wushan RD., Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510641, China
**Graduate School of Information, Production and Systems, Waseda University, 2-7 Hibikino, Wakamatsu-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 808-0135, Japan
To meet the higher requirements of human-machine interface technology, a robot with human-following capability, a classic but significant problem, is discussed in this paper. We first propose a human detection method that uses only a single laser range scanner to detect the waist of the target person. Second, owing to the limited speed of a robot and the potential risk of obstructions, a new human-following algorithm is proposed. The speed and acceleration of a robot are adaptive to the human-walking speed and the distance between the human and robot. Finally, the performance of the proposed control system is successfully verified through a set of experimental results obtained using a two-wheelmobile robot working in a real environment under different scenarios.
-  J. Cai and T. Matsumaru, “Robot Human-following Limited Speed Control,” The 22nd IEEE Int. Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (Ro-Man2013), pp. 81-86, 2013.
-  L. Cheng, “Design and Implementation of Human-Robot Interactive Demonstration System Based On Kinect,” Chinese Control and Decision Conf., pp. 971-975, 2012.
-  E. Machida, M. Cao, T. Murao, and H. Hashimoto, “Human Motion Tracking Robot with Kinect 3D Sensor,” SICE Annual Conf., pp. 2207-2211, 2012.
-  T. S. Jin, J. M. Lee, and H. Hashimoto, “Position Control of Mobile Robot for Human-Following in Intelligent Space with Distributed Sensors,” Int. J. of Control, Automation, and Systems, Vol.4, No.2, pp. 204-216, 2006.
-  H. Zhao and R. Shibasaki, “A Novel System for Tracking Pedestrians Using Multiple Single-Row Laser-Range Scanners,” IEEE Trans. on Systems, Man, And Cybernetics – Part A: Systems And Humans, Vol.35, No.2, pp. 283-291, 2005.
-  H. Noguchi, T. Mori, T. Matsumoto, M. Shimosaka, and T. Sato, “Multiple-Person Tracking by Multiple Cameras and Laser Range Scanners in Indoor Environments,” J. of Robotics and Mechatronics, Vol.22, No.2, pp. 221-229, 2010.
-  O. M. Mozos, R. Kurazume, and T. Hasegawa “Multi-Part People Detection Using 2D Range Data,” Int. J. of Social Robotics, Vol.2, Issue 1, pp. 31-40, 2010.
-  T. Hasegawa, Y. Nohara, and K. Murakami, “Floor Sensing System for Commodity Management in Daily Life Environment,” Japan Robot Conf., Vol.28, No.9, pp. 1144-1147, 2010.
-  K. Schenk, A. Kolarow, M. Eisenbach, K. Debes, and H. M. Gross, “Automatic calibration of a stationary network of laser range finders by matching movement trajectories,” 2012 IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), pp. 431-437, 2012.
-  K. O. Arras, B. Lau, S. Grzonka, M. Luber, O. M. Mozos, D. Meyer-Delius, and W. Burgard, “Range-Based People Detection and Tracking for Socially Enabled Service Robots” in Towards Service Robots for Everyday Environments Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics, Vol.76, pp. 235-280, 2012.
-  Y. Sung and W. Chung, “Implementation of JPADAFs to track humans for a mobile robot with a laser finder,” the 22nd IEEE Int. Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, pp. 358-359, 2013.
-  H. Sidenbladh, D. Kragic, and H. I. Christensen, “A person following behavior for a mobile robot,” Proc. 1999 IEEE Int. Conf. Robotics and Automation, pp. 670-675, 1999.
-  V. Alvarez-Santos, X. M. Pardo, R. Iglesias, A. Canedo-Rodriguez, and C. V. Regueiro, “Feature analysis for human recognition and discrimination: application to a person-following behaviour in a mobile robot,” Robotics and Autonomous Systems, Vol.60, Issue 8, pp. 1021-1036, 2012.
-  R. Gockley, J. Forlizzi, and R. Simmons, “Natural person-following behavior for social robots,” Int. Conf. on HRI, pp. 17-24, 2007.
-  R. J. Wai and Y. W. Lin, “Adaptive moving-target tracking control of vision-based mobile robot via dynamic petri recurrent-fuzzyneural-network,” IEEE Trans. on Fuzzy Systems, Issue 99, 2012.
-  M. Kleinehagenbrock, S. Lang, J. Fritsch, F. Lomker, G. A. Fink, and G. Sagerer, “Person tracking with a mobile robot based on multi-modal anchoring,” Proc. 11th IEEE Int. Workshop on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, pp. 423-429, 2002.
-  K. Morioka, Y. Oinaga, and Y. Nakamura, “Control of humanfollowing robot based on cooperative positioning with an intelligent space,” Electronics and Communications in Japan, Vol.95, Issue 1, pp. 20-30, 2012.
-  W. Chung, H. Kim, Y. Yoo, C. B. Moon, and J. Park, “The detection and following of human legs through inductive approaches for a mobile robot with a single laser range finder,” IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, Vol.59, No.8, pp. 3156-3166, 2012.
-  R. Halir and J. Flusser, “Numerically stable direct least squares fitting of ellipses,” Proc. Sixth Int. Conf. Computer Graphics and Visualization, Vol.1, pp. 125-132, 1998.
-  D. Shiyang, “Development of a walking training robot with customizable trajectory design system,” Master Graduation Thesis, Waseda University, 2012.
This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internationa License.