single-dr.php

JDR Vol.19 No.3 pp. 501-511
(2024)
doi: 10.20965/jdr.2024.p0501

Paper:

The 2019 Rugby World Cup and Economic Impacts on Hotels Recovering from Disasters

David N. Nguyen ORCID Icon

Tohoku University
468-1 Aramaki Aza-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8572, Japan

Corresponding author

Received:
October 31, 2023
Accepted:
January 9, 2024
Published:
June 1, 2024
Keywords:
disasters, hotels, mega-events, tourism, COVID-19
Abstract

Japan has experienced two major disasters within the last 15 years, the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake. In order to strengthen economic recovery in the affected regions, Japan implemented tourism development policies which led to a significant increase in tourism numbers. This rise in tourism reached an apex as the country hosted the 2019 Rugby World Cup (RWC). While most of the venues were located in major cities, three of the venues were held in areas that were affected by the aforementioned disasters. This study utilizes semi-structured interviews with representatives from accommodation industries located in host cities recovering from recent disasters. Interview questions focused on the impact of past disaster events, the RWC, COVID-19, and the Go to Travel campaign (GTTC) on business. Our findings highlight that although the tourism industry brought economic opportunities, it also increased its vulnerabilities to external shocks, especially in the accommodation industry. Although all accommodations interviewed were negatively affected, their ability to manage its impacts varied. While the RWC brought an increase in tourism, this was quickly overshadowed by the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite its negative impacts on businesses, the government played a key role in reducing its impacts through GTTC.

Cite this article as:
D. Nguyen, “The 2019 Rugby World Cup and Economic Impacts on Hotels Recovering from Disasters,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.19 No.3, pp. 501-511, 2024.
Data files:
References
  1. [1] Kyodo News, “Japan Marks 11th Anniversary of 2011 Quake, Tsunami, and Nuclear Disaster,” The Japan Times, March 11, 2022. https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2022/03/11/national/march-11-disaster-anniversary/ [Accessed September 10, 2023]
  2. [2] R. Gilhooly, “The Scars Remain: Tohoku Communities Still Struggling to Rebuild, 10 Years On,” The Japan Times, March 11, 2021. https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2021/03/11/national/tohoku-311-rebuilding/ [Accessed September 11, 2023]
  3. [3] K. Goda, G. Campbell, L. Hulme, B. Ismael, L. Ke, R. Marsh, P. Sammonds, E. So, Y. Okumura, N. Kishi, M. Koyama, S. Yotsui, J. Kiyono, S. Wu, and S. Wilkinson, “The 2016 Kumamoto Earthquakes: Cascading Geological Hazards and Compounding Risks,” Frontiers in Built Environment, Vol.2, Article No.19, 2016. https://doi.org/10.3389/fbuil.2016.00019
  4. [4] Cabinet Office Policy Director-General (CAO), “Estimated Economic Impact Due to the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake,” Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, 2016.
  5. [5] Fire and Disaster Management Agency (FDMA), “2016 Disaster Information Catalogue,” 2016. http://www.fdma.go.jp/bn/2016/ [Accessed August 1, 2023]
  6. [6] Japan National Tourism Organization (JNTO), “Japan Tourism Statistics,” 2022. https://statistics.jnto.go.jp/ [Accessed September 12, 2023]
  7. [7] C. N. Vaporis, “The Early Modern Origins of Japanese Tourism,” Senri Ethnological Studies, Vol.38, pp. 25-38, 1995. https://doi.org/10.15021/00003019
  8. [8] R. Goree, “The Culture of Travel in Edo-Period Japan,” Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Asian History, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780190277727.013.72
  9. [9] N. Kubota, “The Origins of Japan’s Hot Springs,” Nikkei Asia, December 11, 2014. https://asia.nikkei.com/NAR/Articles/The-origins-of-Japan-s-hot-springs [Accessed June 1, 2023]
  10. [10] M. Serbulea and U. Payyappallimana, “Onsen (Hot Springs) in Japan—Transforming Terrain Into Healing Landscapes,” Health and Place, Vol.18, Issue 6, pp. 1366-1373, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2012.06.020
  11. [11] E. Nobukiyo, “A Brief Review of Tourism in Japan After World War II,” J. of Ritsumeikan Social Sciences and Humanities, Vol.2, pp. 141-153, 2010.
  12. [12] J. Eades and M. Cooper, “Landscape as Theme Park: Demographic Change, Tourism, Urbanization, and the Fate of Communities in 21st Century Japan,” Tourism Review Int., Vol.11, No.1, pp. 9-18, 2007. https://doi.org/10.3727/154427207784771914
  13. [13] J. Robertson, “Furusato Japan: The Culture and Politics of Nostalgia,” Int. J. of Politics, Culture, and Society, Vol.1, No.4, pp. 494-518, 1988. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01390685
  14. [14] C. McMorran, “Understanding the ‘Heritage’ in Heritage Tourism: Ideological Tool or Economic Tool for a Japanese Hot Springs Resort?,” Tourism Geographies, Vol.10, Issue 3, pp. 334-354, 2008. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616680802236329
  15. [15] F. Coulmas, “Population Decline and Ageing in Japan: The Social Consequences,” Routledge, 2007.
  16. [16] V. Smil, “The Unprecedented Shift in Japan’s Population: Numbers, Age, and Prospects,” The Asia Pacific J., Vol.5, Issue 4, Article No.2411, 2007.
  17. [17] Y. Ishikawa, “Internal Migration in Japan,” M. Bell, A. Bernard, E. Charles-Edwards, and Y. Zhu (Eds.), “Internal Migration in the Countries of Asia: A Cross-national Comparison,” pp. 113-136, Springer, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-44010-7_7
  18. [18] J. Knight, “Rural Revitalization in Japan: Spirit of the Village and Taste of the Country,” Asian Survey, Vol.34, Issue 7, pp. 634-646, 1994. https://doi.org/10.2307/2645373
  19. [19] C. Funck, “When the Bubble Burst: Planning and Reality in Japan’s Resort Industry,” Current Issues in Tourism, Vol.2, Issue 4, pp. 333-353, 1999. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683509908667860
  20. [20] G. McCormack, “Growth, Construction, and the Environment: Japan’s Construction State,” Japanese Studies, Vol.15, Issue 1, pp. 26-35, 1995. https://doi.org/10.1080/10371399508571519
  21. [21] F. Ortiz-Moya and N. Moreno, “The Incredible Shrinking Japan,” City, Vol.20, Issue 6, pp. 880-903, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1080/13604813.2016.1239445
  22. [22] O. Tada, “Constructing Okinawa as Japan’s Hawai‘i: From Honeymoon Boom to Resort Paradise,” Japanese Studies, Vol.35, Issue 3, pp. 287-302, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1080/10371397.2015.1124745
  23. [23] A. Hashimoto, D. J. Telfer, and K. Telfer, “Eurocentric Cultural Theme Parks in Japan: Domestic Tourists’ Perspectives on Place Branding,” J. of Tourism and Cultural Change, Vol.21, Issue 3, pp. 344-363, 2023. https://doi.org/10.1080/14766825.2023.2178314
  24. [24] G. McCormack, “From the Sea That Divides to the Sea That Links: Contradictions of Ecological and Economic Development in Okinawa,” Capitalism Nature Socialism, Vol.10, Issue 1, pp. 3-39, 1999. https://doi.org/10.1080/10455759909358846
  25. [25] D. N. Nguyen, “An Archipelagic Tourism Development Model: The Case of Okinawa Prefecture,” Asian Geographer, Vol.34, Issue 1, pp. 39-57, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1080/10225706.2017.1323654
  26. [26] P. J. Rimmer, “Japan’s ‘Resort Archipelago’: Creating Regions of Fun, Pleasure, Relaxation, and Recreation,” Environment and Planning A, Vol.24, Issue 11, pp. 1599-1625, 1992. https://doi.org/10.1068/a241599
  27. [27] S. Matsuyama, “Regional Revitalization, Contents Tourism, and the Representation of Place in Anime: The Seichi-Junrei of Love Live! Sunshine!! in Japan,” J. of Cultural Geography, Vol.39, Issue 3, pp. 375-398, 2022. https://doi.org/10.1080/08873631.2022.2124062
  28. [28] T. Thelen, S. Kim, and E. Scherer, “Film Tourism Impacts: A Multi-Stakeholder Longitudinal Approach,” Tourism Recreation Research, Vol.45, Issue 3, pp. 291-306, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1080/02508281.2020.1718338
  29. [29] Kyodo News, “Government Overspent in Resort Development,” The Japan Times, November 20, 2002. https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2002/11/20/national/government-overspent-in-resort-development/ [Accessed June 4, 2023]
  30. [30] Y. Jiang, B. W. Ritchie, and M.-L. Verreynne, “Building Tourism Organizational Resilience to Crises and Disasters: A Dynamic Capabilities View,” Int. J. of Tourism Research, Vol.21, Issue 6, pp. 882-900, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.2312
  31. [31] Y. Tajima, “Japanese Idol Culture for ‘Contents Tourism’ and Regional Revitalization: A Case Study of Regional Idols,” A. Beniwal, R. Jain, and K. Spracklen (Eds.), “Global Leisure and the Struggle for a Better World,” pp. 117-139, Springer, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-70975-8_6
  32. [32] T. Yamamura, “Pop Culture Contents and Historical Heritage: The Case of Heritage Revitalization Through ‘Contents Tourism’ in Shiroishi City,” Contemporary Japan, Vol.30, Issue 2, pp. 144-163, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1080/18692729.2018.1460049
  33. [33] Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT Japan), “White Paper on Tourism in Japan: The Tourism Situation in FY2012,” 2012. https://www.mlit.go.jp/kankocho/content/810003447.pdf [Accessed July 30, 2023]
  34. [34] P. Ronalds, “The Ruptures of Rhetoric: Cool Japan, Tokyo 2020 and Post-3.11 Tohoku,” New Voices in Japanese Studies, Vol.11, pp. 26-46, 2019. https://doi.org/10.21159/nvjs.11.02
  35. [35] S. Klien, “Reinventing Ishinomaki, Reinventing Japan? Creative Networks, Alternative Lifestyles and the Search for Quality of Life in Post-growth Japan,” Japanese Studies, Vol.36, Issue 1, pp. 39-60, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1080/10371397.2016.1148555
  36. [36] A. Martini and C. Minca, “Affective Dark Tourism Encounters: Rikuzentakata After the 2011 Great East Japan Disaster,” Social and Cultural Geography, Vol.22, Issue 1, pp. 33-57, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1080/14649365.2018.1550804
  37. [37] S. Samata, “Rugby World Cup 2019: Opportunities for Communities in Japan,” The British Chamber of Commerce in Japan, 2019. https://bccjapan.com/news/rugby-world-cup-2019-opportunities-for-communities-in-japan/ [Accessed July 29, 2023]
  38. [38] D. Getz and S. J. Page, “Progress and Prospects for Event Tourism Research.” Tourism Management, Vol.52, pp. 593-631, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2015.03.007
  39. [39] M. Müller, “The Mega-Event Syndrome: Why So Much Goes Wrong in Mega-Event Planning and What to Do About It,” J. of the American Planning Association, Vol.81, No.1, pp. 6-17, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1080/01944363.2015.1038292
  40. [40] J. Teigland, “Mega-Events and Impacts on Tourism; the Predictions and Realities of the Lillehammer Olympics,” Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal, Vol.17, Issue 4, pp. 305-317, 1999. https://doi.org/10.3152/147154699781767738
  41. [41] P. Vlachos, “The 2012 Olympics and Small Local Business: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study of South-East London,” G. Poynter, V. Viehoff, and Y. Li (Eds.), “The London Olympics and Urban Development: The Mega-Event City,” pp. 176-192, Routledge, 2015. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315758862
  42. [42] T. Jimura, “Changing Faces of Tokyo: Regeneration, Tourism and Tokyo 2020,” N. Wise and T. Jimura (Eds.), “Tourism, Cultural Heritage and Urban Regeneration, Changing Spaces in Historical Places,” pp. 141-155, Springer, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-41905-9_10
  43. [43] K. McDonald, “Olympic Recoveries,” The J. of Asian Studies, Vol.79, Issue 3, pp. 599-608, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021911820002296
  44. [44] M. Mukoyama and M. Takao, “The Local Politics of Rugby World Cup 2019 Through the Disaster Recovery Process in Kamaishi, Japan,” K. Kobayashi, J. Horne, Y. Cho, and J. W. Lee (Eds.), “Sports Mega-Events in Asia,” pp. 245-267, Springer, 2023. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-99-0011-4_11
  45. [45] J. Rookwood and K. Adeosun, “Nation Branding and Public Diplomacy: Examining Japan’s 2019 Rugby World Cup and 2020(21) Olympic Games in the Midst of a Global Economic Downturn and the COVID-19 Pandemic,” J. of Global Sport Management, pp. 1-21, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1080/24704067.2021.1871860
  46. [46] N. Hritz and A. Cecil, “Small Business Owner’s Perception of the Value and Impacts of Sport Tourism on a Destination,” J. of Convention and Event Tourism, Vol.20, No.3, pp. 224-240, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1080/15470148.2019.1635547
  47. [47] N. Hritz and C. Ross, “The Perceived Impacts of Sport Tourism: An Urban Host Community Perspective,” J. of Sport Management, Vol.24, No.2, pp. 119-138, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.24.2.119
  48. [48] C. M. Hall, “Urban Entrepreneurship, Corporate Interests and Sports Mega-Events: The Thin Policies of Competitiveness within the Hard Outcomes of Neoliberalism,” The Sociological Review, Vol.54, Issue 2_suppl, pp. 59-70, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-954X.2006.00653.x
  49. [49] UNWTO, “Impact Assessment of the COVID-19 Outbreak on International Tourism,” 2023. https://www.unwto.org/impact-assessment-of-the-covid-19-outbreak-on-international-tourism [Accessed August 2, 2023]
  50. [50] Y. Yoshikawa, “The Prospects of Japan’s Post-Pandemic Tourism,” East Asia Forum, July 2022. https://eastasiaforum.org/2022/07/17/the-prospects-of-japans-post-pandemic-tourism/ [Accessed September 10, 2023]
  51. [51] G. Vogt and S. Qin, “Sanitizing the National Body: COVID-19 and the Revival of Japan’s ‘Closed Country’ Strategy,” Asian and Pacific Migration J., Vol.31, Issue 3, pp. 247-269, 2022. https://doi.org/10.1177/01171968221125482
  52. [52] T. Kanamura, “An Impact Assessment of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Japanese and US Hotel Stocks,” Financial Innovation, Vol.9, Article No.87, 2023. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40854-023-00478-2
  53. [53] Y. Kitamura, S. Karkour, Y. Ichisugi, and N. Itsubo, “Evaluation of the Economic, Environmental, and Social Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Japanese Tourism Industry,” Sustainability, Vol.12, Issue 24, Article No.10302, 2020. https://doi.org/10.3390/su122410302
  54. [54] E. Steen, “Japan Eases Domestic Travel Restrictions and Gets Ready to Boost Local Tourism,” Time Out, June 19, 2020. https://www.timeout.com/tokyo/news/japan-eases-domestic-travel-restrictions-and-gets-ready-to-boost-local-tourism-061920 [Accessed September 11, 2023]
  55. [55] T. Matsuura and H. Saito, “The COVID-19 Pandemic and Domestic Travel Subsidies,” Annals of Tourism Research, Vol.92, Article No.103326, 2022. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2021.103326
  56. [56] S. I. Ilevbare and G. McPherson, “Understanding COVID-19: A Hybrid Threat and its Impact on Sport Mega-Events. A Focus on Japan and the Tokyo 2020 Olympic Games,” Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, Vol.4, Article No.720591, 2022. https://doi.org/10.3389/fspor.2022.720591
  57. [57] L. D. Q. Pham, T. Coles, B. W. Ritchie, and J. Wang, “Building Business Resilience to External Shocks: Conceptualising the Role of Social Networks to Small Tourism and Hospitality Businesses,” J. of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Vol.48, pp. 210-219, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhtm.2021.06.012
  58. [58] J. Wang and B. W. Ritchie, “Attitudes and Perceptions of Crisis Planning Among Accommodation Managers: Results from an Australian Study,” Safety Science, Vol.52, pp. 81-91, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2012.02.005
  59. [59] “Japan Needs New Strategies for Sustainable Post-COVID Tourism Growth,” The Mainichi, January 6, 2023. https://mainichi.jp/english/articles/20230106/p2a/00m/0op/020000c [Accessed January 2, 2024]
  60. [60] N. A. Brown, J. E. Rovins, S. Feldmann-Jensen, C. Orchiston, and D. Johnston, “Exploring Disaster Resilience Within the Hotel Sector: A Systematic Review of Literature,” Int. J. of Disaster Risk Reduction, Vol.22, pp. 362-370, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2017.02.005
  61. [61] D. N. Nguyen, F. Imamura, and K. Iuchi, “Public–Private Collaboration for Disaster Risk Management: A Case Study of Hotels in Matsushima, Japan,” Tourism Management, Vol.61, pp. 129-140, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2017.02.003
  62. [62] D. N. Nguyen, F. Imamura, and K. Iuchi, “Barriers Towards Hotel Disaster Preparedness: Case Studies of Post 2011 Tsunami, Japan,” Int. J. of Disaster Risk Reduction, Vol.28, pp. 585-594, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2018.01.008
  63. [63] N. Mouter and D. V. Noordegraaf, “Intercoder Reliability for Qualitative Research: You Win Some, But Do You Lose Some as Well?,” TRAIL Research School, October 2012.
  64. [64] J. McCurry, “Japan Aim to Conjure Spirit of 2019 and Build on Rugby Legacy Against England,” The Guardian, September 17, 2023. https://www.theguardian.com/sport/2023/sep/17/japan-aim-to-conjure-spirit-of-2019-and-build-on-rugby-legacy-against-england [Accessed July 29, 2023]
  65. [65] T. Hinch and E. Ito, “Research, Lifelong Sport, and Travel.” Japan J. of Lifelong Sport, Vol.15, No.2, pp. 1-13, 2018. https://doi.org/10.14838/jjls.15.2_1
  66. [66] K. Wortley, “Japan’s Spin on ‘Workations’ Proves a Hit,” Japan Times, May 8, 2023. https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2023/05/08/business/workation-japan-rise/ [Accessed July 30, 2023]
  67. [67] J. McCurry, “Relief Tinged with Unease as Japan Reopens After Two ‘Really Tough’ Years,” The Guardian, October 18, 2022. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2022/oct/18/relief-tinged-with-unease-as-japan-reopens-after-two-really-tough-years-covid-tourists [Accessed August 2, 2023]
  68. [68] Y. Jiang, B. W. Ritchie, and M.-L. Verreynne, “A Resource-Based Typology of Dynamic Capability: Managing Tourism in a Turbulent Environment,” J. of Travel Research, Vol.61, Issue 5, pp. 1006-1023, 2022. https://doi.org/10.1177/00472875211014960
  69. [69] D. P. Aldrich, “Building Resilience: Social Capital in Post-Disaster Recovery,” The University of Chicago Press, 2012.
  70. [70] L. K. Ozanne, M. Chowdhury, G. Prayag, and D. A. Mollenkopf, “SMEs Navigating COVID-19: The Influence of Social Capital and Dynamic Capabilities on Organizational Resilience,” Industrial Marketing Management, Vol.104, pp. 116-135, 2022. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indmarman.2022.04.009
  71. [71] D. P. Aldrich, V. Ingham, and R. Hanvin, “Getting Connected: Using Networks to Build Business Community Resilience in the Blue Mountains,” corporate2community, 2022.
  72. [72] R. Nunkoo and H. Ramkissoon, “Residents’ Satisfaction with Community Attributes and Support for Tourism,” J. of Hospitality and Tourism Research, Vol.35, Issue 2, pp. 171-190, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1177/1096348010384600
  73. [73] R. Nunkoo and H. Ramkissoon, “Developing a Community Support Model for Tourism,” Annals of Tourism Research, Vol.38, Issue 3, pp. 964-988, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2011.01.017
  74. [74] S. Heitmann, “Film Tourism Planning and Development—Questioning the Role of Stakeholders and Sustainability,” Tourism and Hospitality Planning and Development, Vol.7, Issue 1, pp. 31-46, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1080/14790530903522606
  75. [75] M. Qu and J. M. Cheer, “Community Art Festivals and Sustainable Rural Revitalisation,” J. of Sustainable Tourism, Vol.29, Issues 11-12, pp. 1756-1775, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2020.1856858
  76. [76] M. Qu, A. D. McCormick, and C. Funck, “Community Resourcefulness and Partnerships in Rural Tourism,” J. of Sustainable Tourism, Vol.30, Issue 10, pp. 2371-2390, 2022. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2020.1849233
  77. [77] S. Klien, “Contemporary Art and Regional Revitalisation: Selected Artworks in the Echigo-Tsumari Art Triennial 2000–6,” Japan Forum, Vol.22, Issues 3-4, pp. 513-543, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1080/09555803.2010.533641
  78. [78] D. Gursoy and K. W. Kendall, “Hosting Mega Events: Modeling Locals Support,” Annals of Tourism Research, Vol.33, Issue 3, pp. 603-623, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2006.01.005

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, Opera.

Last updated on Jun. 03, 2024