Failure Mechanism and Deformation-Based Design of Narrow Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil Walls
*Department of Civil Engineering, National Central University
No.300 Zhongda Road, Zhongli District, Taoyuan 32001, Taiwan
**NT Construction Solutions Pty. Ltd.
***GHD Pty. Ltd.
In recent years, the working performance of mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) walls has shown their outstanding stability and capacity to accommodate large deformation. The behavior and failure mechanisms of conventional MSE walls have been carefully examined. In cases where space is limited, such as in mountainous regions, in coastal regions, and for road expansion, the conventional MSE wall can be modified by adjusting the length of reinforcement to conform the construction area. For narrow geosynthetic reinforced soil (GRS) wall, the modification and arrangement of reinforcement components, including reinforcement tensile strength, vertical spacing, and aspect ratio, play key roles in the behavior of reinforced earth walls and can also lead to differences in the distribution of lateral earth pressure compared with conventional MSE walls. In this study, a series of geotechnical centrifuge tests are conducted to clarify the failure behaviors, distribution of lateral earth pressure, and deformation progresses of narrow GRS walls. Among the investigated variants, it is verified that improved reinforcement strength leads to a significant decrease in horizontal wall displacement. The relationship among lateral earth pressure, zero-earth-pressure zone, and horizontal displacement can be applied to predict the deformation of a narrow GRS wall.
-  T. M. Allen and R. J. Bathurst, “Improved simplified method for prediction of loads in reinforced soil walls,” J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., Vol.141, No.11, 04015049, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0001355
-  R. R. Berg, B. R. Christopher, and N. C. Samtani, “Design of mechanically stabilized earth walls and reinforced soil slopes – Volume I,” Publication No.FHWA-NHI-10-024, Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, 2009.
-  Engineering and Regional Operations, Development Division, Design Office, Washington State Department of Transportation, “Design Manual M 22-01.21,” 2022.
-  Y. Miyata, R. J. Bathurst, and H. Miyatake, “Performance of three geogrid-reinforced soil walls before and after foundation failure,” Geosynth. Int., Vol.22, No.4, pp. 311-326, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1680/gein.15.00014
-  D. Leshchinsky, B. Leshchinsky, and O. Leshchinsky, “Limit state design framework for geosynthetic-reinforced soil structures,” Geotext. Geomembr., Vol.45, No.6, pp. 642-652, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geotexmem.2017.08.005
-  W. Thielicke and E. J. Stamhuis, “PIVlab – towards user-friendly, affordable and accurate digital particle image velocimetry in MATLAB,” J. Open Res. Softw., Vol.2, No.1, e30, 2014. https://doi.org/10.5334/jors.bl
-  C. S. Vieira and P. M. Pereira, “Influence of the geosynthetic type and compaction conditions on the pullout behaviour of geosynthetics embedded in recycled construction and demolition materials,” Sustainability, Vol.14, No.3, 1207, 2022. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031207
-  C. Xu, Y. Luo, H. Chen, and B. Jia, “Effects of interface connections on narrowed mechanically stabilized earth walls,” Environ. Earth Sci., Vol.75, No.21, 1411, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-016-6226-9
-  M. Aubertin, L. Li, S. Arnoldi, R. Simon, T. Belem, B. Bussière, and M. Benzaazoua, “Interaction between backfill and rockmass in narrow stopes,” Soil and Rock America 2003: 12th Panamerican Conf. on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, pp. 1157-1164, 2003.
-  V. Elias, B. R. Christopher, and R. R. Berg, “Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls and Reinforced Soil Slopes Design and Construction Guidelines,” Publication No.FHWA-NHI-00-043, Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, 2001.
-  T. M. Allen and R. J. Bathurst, “Application of the simplified stiffness method to design of reinforced soil walls,” J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., Vol.144, No.5, 04018024, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0001874
-  R. J, Bathurst, Y. Miyata, and T. M. Allen, “Facing displacements in geosynthetic reinforced soil walls,” Proc. of the 2010 Earth Retention Conf., pp. 442-459, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1061/41128(384)45
-  R. L. Carter and M. Bernardi, “NCMA’s Design Manual for Segmental Retaining Walls,” National Concrete Masonry Association, NCMA Publication, 2014.
-  K. Kazimierowicz-Frankowska, “A case study of a geosynthetic reinforced wall with wrap-around facing,” Geotext. Geomembr., Vol.23, No.1, pp. 107-115, 2005. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geotexmem.2004.05.001
-  K. T. Kniss, K.-H. Yang, S. G. Wright, and J. G. Zornberg, “Earth pressures and design considerations of narrow MSE walls,” Proc. of the Conf. of Texas Section–ASCE Meeting, 2007.
-  C. R. Lawson and T. W. Yee, “Reinforced soil retaining walls with constrained reinforced fill zones,” Proc. of Geo-Frontiers 2005, 2005. https://doi.org/10.1061/40787(166)10
-  Y.-B. Lee, H.-Y Ko, and J. S. McCartney, “Deformation response of shored MSE walls under surcharge loading in the centrifuge,” Geosynth. Int., Vol.17, No.6, pp. 389-402, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1680/gein.2010.17.6.389
-  K. F. Morrison, F. E. Harrison, J. G. Collin, A. M. Dodds, and B. Arndt, “Shored mechanically stabilized earth (SMSE) wall systems design guidelines,” Publication No.FHWA-CFL/TD-06-001, Central Federal Lands Highwaw Division, Federal Highwaw Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, 2006.
-  H. Nakazawa et al., “Experimental evaluation on earthquake-resistance of road retaining wall using gabion,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.13, No.5, pp. 897-916, 2018. https://doi.org/10.20965/jdr.2018.p0897
-  H. Nakazawa et al., “Problems in earthquake resistance evaluation of gabion retaining wall based on shake table test with full-scale model,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.14, No.9, pp. 1154-1169, 2019. https://doi.org/10.20965/jdr.2019.p1154
-  K.-H. Yang, J. G. Zornberg, W.-Y. Hung, and C. R. Lawson, “Location of failure plane and design considerations for narrow geosynthetic reinforced soil wall systems,” J. GeoEng., Vol.6, No.1, pp. 27-40, 2011.
-  K.-H. Yang, J. G. Zornberg, and S. G. Wright, “Numerical modeling of narrow MSE walls with extensible reinforcements,” CTR Technical Report 0-5506-2, Center for Transportation Research, The University of Texas at Austin, 2008.
-  Y. Yu, R. J. Bathurst, and T. M. Allen, “Numerical modelling of two full-scale reinforced soil wrapped-face walls,” Geotext. Geomembr., Vol.45, No.4, pp. 237-249, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geotexmem.2017.02.004
-  V. Greco, “Active thrust on retaining walls of narrow backfill width,” Comput. Geotech., Vol.50, pp. 66-78, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compgeo.2012.12.007
-  Y. Xie, B. Leshchinsky, and S. Yang, “Evaluating reinforcement loading within surcharged segmental block reinforced soil walls using a limit state framework,” Geotext. Geomembr., Vol.44, No.6, pp. 832-844, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geotexmem.2016.06.010
-  K.-H. Yang and C.-N. Liu, “Finite element analysis of earth pressures for narrow retaining walls,” J. GeoEng., Vol.2, No.2, pp. 43-52, 2007.
-  R. Woodruff, “Centrifuge modeling of MSE-shoring composite walls,” Master Thesis, The University of Colorado, 2003.
-  K.-H. Yang, P. Utomo, and T.-L. Liu, “Evaluation of force-equilibrium and deformation-based design approaches for predicting reinforcement loads within geosynthetic-reinforced soil structures,” J. GeoEng., Vol.8, No.2, pp. 41-54, 2013.
-  ASTM International, “ASTM D5804-97(2002): Standard test methods for zero-span tensile strength (“dry zero-span tensile),” 2002.
-  H.-T. Chen, C.-J. Lee, and H.-W. Chen, “The traveling pluviation apparatus for sand specimen preparation,” Int. Conf. on Centrifuge 98, pp. 143-148, 1998.
-  W.-Y. Hung, “Breaking failure behavior and internal stability analysis of geosynthetic reinforced earth walls,” Ph.D. Thesis, National Central University, 2008.
-  S. Frydman and I. Keissar, “Earth pressure on retaining walls near rock faces,” J. Geotech. Eng., Vol.113, No.6, pp. 586-599, 1987. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9410(1987)113:6(586)
This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internationa License.