Evaluation of Tsunami Disasters Caused by the 1923 Great Kanto Earthquake
Itoh City Cultural Property Management Center
3-11 Takenodai, Itoh, Shizuoka 414-0026, Japan
The 1923 Great Kanto Earthquake is one of the earthquakes that have occurred multiple times in the past as part of the Sagami Trough earthquakes. These earthquakes, which occurred at the plate boundary, occurred in 1495 (Meio Earthquake), 1703 (Genroku Earthquake), and again in 1923, causing significant damage to various areas in Kanto, including Tokyo and Yokohama, and it came to be known as the Great Kanto Earthquake. The Sagami Trough earthquakes have consistently brought strong tsunami disasters to various areas in Kanto, extending from the Sagami Bay coast to the Boso Peninsula, and residents along the coast were highly aware of the risk of tsunamis occurring after major earthquakes. Although a tsunami occurred in the Great Kanto Earthquake of 1923, it is believed to have had a wave height approximately half that of the tsunami in the Genroku Earthquake. However, this tsunami destroyed the livelihoods of villages and caused significant damage. In this study, we aim to reexamine historical records related to the tsunami in the Great Kanto Earthquake and objectively evaluate the actual situation of this tsunami disaster.
-  Ministry of Home Affairs, “Taisho-era Earthquake Disaster Documents,” Tokyo 1926. https://dl.ndl.go.jp/pid/981915/1/2 [Accessed June 26, 2023]
-  Central Meteorological Observatory, “Central Meteorological Observatory’s Investigation Reports,” 1924. https://dl.ndl.go.jp/pid/984966/1/1 [Accessed June 26, 2023]
-  S. Tanakadate, “The Great Kanto Earthquake and the Coastal Upheaval Movements,” The J. Geography, 38-4, 1926. https://doi.org/10.5026/jgeography.38.3_130, https://doi.org/10.5026/jgeography.38.4_188, https://doi.org/10.5026/jgeography.38.7_374
-  T. Hatori, “Tsunami Behavior of the 1923 Kanto Earthquake at Atami and Hatsushima Island in Sagami Bay,” Bulletin of the Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Vol.58, 1983
-  Cabinet Office Government of Japan Central Disaster Management Council, “1923 Great Kanto Earthquake Report, Part 1,” July 2006. https://www.bousai.go.jp/kyoiku/kyokun/kyoukunnokeishou/rep/1923_kanto_daishinsai/data/index.html [Accessed June 26, 2023]
-  H. Kanamori, “Faulting of Great Kanto Earthquake of 1923 as Revealed by Seismological Data,” Bulletin of the Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Vol.49, 1971.
-  “Investigation Chart of Changes in Topography and Water Depth near Earthquake Disaster Areas,” 1923 (in Japanese).
-  A. Yoshida, M. Harada, and K. Odawara, “ Vertical Displacement of the scabbed of Sagami Bay At the 1923 Kanto earthquake,” Bulletin of the Hot Spring Research Institute of Kanagawa Prefecture, Vol.44, 2012.
-  Izu Islands History Committee, “The 100 years Memorial History of Izu Islands,” Tokyo 1972 (Japanese).
-  T. Watanabe, “Tsunami of Southern Coast of Kanto District,” J. of Geography, Vol.79-3, 1970.
-  T. Fukutomi, “Heights of Tsunamis at Shimoda in Southern Izu Peninsula,” Bulletin of the Earthquakes Research Institute Tokyo Univ., Vol.14, 1936.
-  Usami School Children, “Kanto Dai Shinsai,” Usami Shizuoka Pref., 1923 (in Japanese).
-  G. Otaka, “A History of Ajiro,” Ajiro History Committee, Shizuoka Pref, 1975 (in Japanese).
-  G. Otaka, “A History of Taga Village,” Taga History Committee, Shizuoka Pref., 1972 (in Japanese).
-  Shizuoka Pref Police Station, “Taisho Earthquake Documents,” Shizuoka Pref. Police Station, 1924 (in Japanese).
-  Odawara Police Station, “Earthquake Disaster Documents in the Territory of Odawara Police Station,” Odawara Police Station, 1923 (in Japanese).
-  M. Fujimura, “Stone Memorial Monument of Great Kanto Earthquake,” Nagoya Univ., 2015.
-  Oiso Police Station, “Earthquake Disaster Records,” The Oiso Police Station, 1924.3 (in Japanese).
-  T. Matsuda, T. Mizumoto, M. Tajikara, and R. S. Matsuura, “Was the Oiso Coast Uplifted in Time of the 1703 Genroku Earthquake? – Discussion on the Marine Terrace –, ” Zisin (J. of the Seismological Society of Japan. 2nd ser.), Vol.67, No.1, pp. 35-39, 2014. https://doi.org/10.4294/zisin.67.35
-  I. Mannen, T. Goto, and M. Namikawa, “Great Kanto Earthquake Tsunami in Zushi, Kamakura, and Fujisawa, Kanagawa, Japan,” Bulletin of the Hot Spring Research Institute of Kanagawa Prefecture, Vol.28, pp. 71-84, 2013.
-  Society of Historical Earthquake Studies, “Earthquake Emergency Survey Map,” Kanagawa Univ., 2008.
-  K. Ishibashi, “Source Region of the 1703 Genroku Kanto Earthquake and Recurrence Time of Major Earthquakes in Sagami Bay, Japan,” J. of the Seismological Society of Japan, Vol.30, No.3, pp. 369-374, 1977.
This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internationa License.