single-dr.php

JDR Vol.18 No.2 pp. 162-177
(2023)
doi: 10.20965/jdr.2023.p0162

Paper:

Public Evaluation of the Reconstruction and Regeneration of Fukushima 10 Years After the Earthquake

Tetsuya Nakamura*,†, Steven Lloyd*, Atsushi Maruyama**, and Satoru Masuda***

*Kyoei University
4158 Uchimaki, Kasukabe, Saitama 344-0051, Japan

Corresponding author

**Chiba University, Matsudo, Japan

***Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan

Received:
February 22, 2022
Accepted:
December 4, 2022
Published:
February 1, 2023
Keywords:
Fukushima NPP, Great East Japan Earthquake, reconstruction policy, Fukushima Innovation Coast Initiative Framework, community assessment
Abstract

This study examines the results of an online survey of Fukushima residents on their impressions of the reconstruction process ten years after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. It aims to gauge the levels of approval and satisfaction that participants have with support for survivors, housing and community reconstruction, industrial and livelihood regeneration, efforts to decontaminate “difficult to return” zones, measures taken to counter harmful rumors, and the use of the reconstruction budget. The key findings are that many participants found little to be satisfied with after the disaster and that the most critical groups were those who had been directly affected by the disaster and older people. Actions that were seen as successful included provision of public emergency housing, the use of the media in counteracting rumors, the opening of major transport links, and efforts to restore agricultural activities. Going forward, the participants were most concerned about whether support for isolated elderly people would continue and whether long-term medical, emotional, and financial support would continue for survivors.

Cite this article as:
T. Nakamura, S. Lloyd, A. Maruyama, and S. Masuda, “Public Evaluation of the Reconstruction and Regeneration of Fukushima 10 Years After the Earthquake,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.18 No.2, pp. 162-177, 2023.
Data files:
References
  1. [1] National Police Agency, “Police Countermeasures and Damage Situation Associated with 2011 Tohoku district – off the Pacific Ocean Earthquake March 10, 2021.” https://www.npa.go.jp/news/other/earthquake2011/pdf/higaijokyo_e.pdf [Accessed February 2, 2022]
  2. [2] Reconstruction Agency, “Reiwa 2nd Year Great East Japan Earthquake Reconstruction Related Budget Execution Status,” 2021 (in Japanese). https://www.reconstruction.go.jp/topics/sozai/20210730_shikkoujyoukyoukouhyou.pdf [Accessed February 2, 2022]
  3. [3] Reconstruction Agency, “Current Status of Reconstruction and Future Efforts,” 2021 (in Japanese). https://www.reconstruction.go.jp/topics/main-cat1/sub-cat1-1/2021.4_genjoutokadai_set.pdf [Accessed February 2, 2022]
  4. [4] Reconstruction Agency, “Reconstruction Efforts from FY2021,” 2020. https://www.reconstruction.go.jp/english/topics/Laws_etc/ReconstructionEffortsfromFY2021.pdf [Accessed February 2, 2022]
  5. [5] Reconstruction Agency, “Changes in the Basic Policy for Reconstruction from the Great East Japan Earthquake After the ‘Reconstruction / Creation Period’,” 2021 (in Japanese). https://www.reconstruction.go.jp/topics/main-cat12/sub-cat12-1/20210309_02_kihonhoshunhonbun.pdf [Accessed February 2, 2022]
  6. [6] T. Takada, “Population Decline in the Disaster Area is ‘More Than Expected,’ and Expectations for Foreigners to Settle Are Difficult,” Business IT, March 10, 2020 (in Japanese). https://www.sbbit.jp/article/cont1/37766 [Accessed February 2, 2022]
  7. [7] Reconstruction Agency, “Reconstruction in Data.” https://www.reconstruction.go.jp/10year/en/data.html [Accessed February 2, 2022]
  8. [8] K. Kawasaki, “Current Status and Problems of Decontamination by Municipalities in Fukushima Prefecture: Records from Two and a Half Years After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident,” J. of the City Planning Institute of Japan, Vol.49, No.2, pp. 186-197, 2014 (in Japanese). https://doi.org/10.11361/journalcpij.49.186
  9. [9] K. Maehara, “Fukushima on a Long Road to Recovery from Earthquake Devastation,” J. of the Japanese Association of Rural Medicine, Vol.62, No.6, pp. 853-858, 2014 (in Japanese). https://doi.org/10.2185/jjrm.62.853
  10. [10] K. Lee, Y. Nagai, and S. Matsuoka, “The Practice of Platform Management for Regional Problem Solving: Case Study of Academy and Fun Society of Fukushima Studies,” Proc. of Int. Association of P2M, pp. 64-76, 2019 (in Japanese). https://doi.org/10.20702/iappmproc.2019.Spring.0_64
  11. [11] K. Nakano, K. Lee, Y. Nagai, H. Onoda, and S. Matsuoka, “Implementation and Analysis of Multi-Generation Co-Creation Project Management in Fukushima Reconstruction,” Proc. of Int. Association of P2M, pp. 161-170, 2020 (in Japanese). https://doi.org/10.20702/iappmproc.2020.Spring.0_161
  12. [12] Y. Ishizaki, “Efforts of Fukushima Reconstruction Headquarters Toward the Developmental Reconstruction of Fukushima,” J. of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan, Vol.55, No.11, pp. 620-621, 2013 (in Japanese). https://doi.org/10.3327/jaesjb.55.11_620
  13. [13] K. Takeuchi and S. Tanaka, “Recovery from Catastrophe and Building Back Better,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.11, No.6, pp. 1190-1201, 2016. https://doi.org/10.20965/jdr.2016.p1190
  14. [14] M. A. Schreurs, “Reconstruction and Revitalization in Fukushima a Decade After the ‘Triple Disaster’ Struck: Striving for Sustainability and a New Future Vision,” Int. J. of Disaster Risk Reduction, Vol.53, 102006, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.102006
  15. [15] N. Fujimoto, “Decontamination-Intensive Reconstruction Policy in Fukushima Under Governmental Budget Constraint,” M. Yamakawa and D. Yamamoto (Eds.), “Unravelling the Fukushima Disaster,” pp. 124-137, Routledge, 2016.
  16. [16] S. Nagamatsu, A. Rose, and J. Eyer, “Return Migration and Decontamination After the 2011 Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Disaster,” Risk Analysis, Vol.40, No.4, pp. 800-817, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1111/risa.13432
  17. [17] W. Liu, F. Yamazaki, and T. Sasagawa, “Monitoring of the Recovery Process of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant from VHR SAR Images,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.11, No.2, pp. 236-245, 2016. https://doi.org/10.20965/jdr.2016.p0236
  18. [18] K. Kawasaki, “Fukushima Reconstruction 10 Years Verification: Long-Term Challenges for Reconstruction from Nuclear Disaster,” Maruzen Publishing, 2021 (in Japanese).
  19. [19] M. Yamakawa and M. Seto, “Fukushima Reconstruction Studies: Toward Reconstruction of Disaster Areas and Reconstruction of Victims’ Lives,” Hassaku-sha, 2018 (in Japanese).
  20. [20] M. Yamakawa and T. Hatsuzawa, “Fukushima Reconstruction Studies II: Asking 10 Years After the Nuclear Accident,” Hassaku-sha, 2021.
  21. [21] S. Tsukada and T. Morita, “Impression of the Reconstruction and Satisfaction with Life After the Great East Japan Earthquake: Tago Nishi’s Disaster Restoration Public Housing,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.14, No.8, pp. 1059-1065, 2019. https://doi.org/10.20965/jdr.2019.p1059
  22. [22] J. Okuyama et al,, “Importance of Psychological Support for Disaster-Affected Adolescents: 10 Years After the Great East Japan Earthquake,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.16, No.6, pp. 914-921, 2021. https://doi.org/10.20965/jdr.2021.p0914
  23. [23] New Fukushima Reconstruction Promotion Headquarters, “Summary of Fukushima Recovery,” 2019 (in Japanese). https://fpcj.jp/wp/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/395e84ebc6c6c0da78e3687e6bd44811.pdf [Accessed February 2, 2022]
  24. [24] Fukushima Innovation Coast Framework, “Innovation Coast Framework.” https://www.fipo.or.jp/en [Accessed February 9, 2022]
  25. [25] H. Zhang, C. Dolan, S. M. Jing, J. Uyimleshi, and P. Dodd, “Bounce Forward: Economic Recovery in Post-Disaster Fukushima,” Sustainability, Vol.11, No.23, 6736, 2019. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236736
  26. [26] Ministry of the Environment, “Booklet to Provide Basic Information Regarding Health Effects of Radiation.” https://www.env.go.jp/en/chemi/rhm/basic-info/1st/glossary.html [Accessed February 16, 2022]
  27. [27] Fukushima Revitalization Station, “Transition of Evacuation Designated Zones.” https://www.pref.fukushima.lg.jp/site/portal-english/en03-08.html [Accessed February 3, 2022]
  28. [28] T. Nakamura, S. Lloyd, A. Maruyama, and S. Masuda, “Impact on Fisheries in Contaminated Water Discharged from Nuclear Power and Reprocessing Plants: The Cases of La Hague Reprocessing Plant, Sellafield Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plant, and TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.16, No.5, pp. 840-865, 2021. https://doi.org/10.20965/jdr.2021.p0840
  29. [29] T. Nakamura, S. Lloyd, A. Maruyama, and S. Masuda, “Public Reaction to Disaster Reconstruction Policy: Case Studies of the Fukushima and Chernobyl Nuclear Accidents,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.16, No.8, pp. 1207-1233, 2021. https://doi.org/10.20965/jdr.2021.p1207
  30. [30] Fukushima Prefecture Disaster Control Headquarters, “Damage Situation Report of the 2011 Earthquake off the Tohoku Coast (Report No.1789),” September 12, 2022. https://www.pref.fukushima.lg.jp/uploaded/life/642484_1797298_misc.pdf [Accessed December 29, 2022]
  31. [31] Portal Site of Official Statistics of Japan, “Regional Statistics Database (System of Social and Demographic Statistics),” https://www.e-stat.go.jp/en/regional-statistics/ [Accessed February 4, 2022]
  32. [32] Japanese Law Translation, “Disaster Relief Act (Act No.118 of 1947).” https://www.japaneselawtranslation.go.jp/ja/laws/view/3981 [Accessed December 29, 2022]
  33. [33] Japanese Law Translation, “Act on Support for Reconstructing Livelihoods of Disaster Victims (Act No.66 of 1998), Last Version: Act No.69 of 2020.” https://www.japaneselawtranslation.go.jp/ja/laws/view/4128 [Accessed December 29, 2022]
  34. [34] Japanese Law Translation, “Act on Special Measures for the Reconstruction and Revitalization of Fukushima, (Act No.25 of 2012).” https://www.japaneselawtranslation.go.jp/en/laws/view/2582 [Accessed December 29, 2022]
  35. [35] e-GOV, “Act on Compensation for Nuclear Damage (Act No.147 of 1961),” (in Japanese). https://elaws.e-gov.go.jp/document?lawid=336AC0000000147_20220617_504AC0000000068 [Accessed December 29, 2022]
  36. [36] e-GOV, “Act on Special Measures concerning the Handling of Pollution by Radioactive Materials (Act of No.110 of 2011),” (in Japanese). https://elaws.e-gov.go.jp/document?lawid=423AC1000000110 [Accessed December 29, 2022]
  37. [37] National Tax Agency, “Treatment of Compensation Paid by TEPCO HD under the Income Tax Law, etc.,” (in Japanese). https://www.nta.go.jp/taxes/shiraberu/saigai/higashinihon/shotoku/index.htm [Accessed December 29, 2022]
  38. [38] Reconstruction Agency, “Status of Reconstruction and Reconstruction Efforts,” 2021. https://www.reconstruction.go.jp/english/topics/Progress_to_date/pdf/English_2021_December_genjoutorikumi.pdf [Accessed February 5, 2022]
  39. [39] J. McCurry, “Funds to Help Japan Tsunami Victims Find Work Spent in Unaffected Areas,” The Guardian, June 4, 2013. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/jun/04/japan-tsunami-victims-unaffected-areas [Accessed February 9, 2022]
  40. [40] M. Kawaguchi and E. Suganuma, “Residents Lose Coastal Vistas to Fortress-Like Tsunami Walls,” The Asahi Shimbun, March 15, 2021. https://www.asahi.com/ajw/articles/14245498 [Accessed February 9, 2022]

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, Opera.

Last updated on Jul. 19, 2024