JDR Vol.17 No.7 pp. 1127-1139
doi: 10.20965/jdr.2022.p1127


Effectiveness of an Elevated Road in Reducing Inundation Area of the Coast of Palu, Sulawesi, Indonesia

Muhammad Rizki Purnama*,†, Mohammad Bagus Adityawan**, Mohammad Farid***, and Asrini Chrysanti***

*Graduate School of Water Resources Management, Institut Teknologi Bandung
Jalan Ganesha Nomor 10, Bandung, Jawa Barat 40132, Indonesia

Corresponding author

**Department of Water Resources Engineering and Management, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia

***Center for Coastal and Marine Development, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Insitut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia

March 17, 2021
September 24, 2022
December 1, 2022
tsunami, elevated road, inundation, mitigation, Palu

The 2018 Sulawesi Earthquake and Tsunami was triggered by an earthquake with a magnitude of Mw 7.4. The event severely damaged coastal areas along the coast of Palu. Thus, mitigation plans are urgently needed. We assessed the effectiveness of an elevated road for tsunami protection along the coast of Palu. Delft3D and Delft Dashboard were used to simulate hypothetical earthquake-generated tsunamis. There are four fault failure scenarios based on three tectonic faults: the North Sulawesi Megathrust, North Makassar Strait, and Central Makassar Strait. The model simulates the tsunami propagation from the source to the coast. The highest tsunami is generated by a combination of the North and Central Makassar Straits. The effectiveness of an elevated road was assessed for four scenarios. Simulation was conducted with various heights of an elevated road along the coast of Palu, and Palu Barat and Ulujadi districts. These districts were chosen since they are densely populated and were severely damaged or destroyed by the 2018 Sulawesi Earthquake and Tsunami. The optimum tsunami impact reduction is obtained when the height of the seawall is no less than 6 m, which can reduce up to 81.7% of total inundation area without any protection.

Cite this article as:
M. Purnama, M. Adityawan, M. Farid, and A. Chrysanti, “Effectiveness of an Elevated Road in Reducing Inundation Area of the Coast of Palu, Sulawesi, Indonesia,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.17, No.7, pp. 1127-1139, 2022.
Data files:
  1. [1] United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR), “Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction 2013,” 2013, [accessed October 31, 2020]
  2. [2] Tursina and Syamsidik, “Reconstruction of the 2004 Tsunami Inundation Map in Banda Aceh Through Numerical Model and its Validation with Post-Tsunami Survey Data,” IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Vol.273, Article No.012008, 2019.
  3. [3] M. B. Adityawan, M. Roh, H. Tanaka, A. Mano, and K. Udo, “Investigation of Tsunami Propagation Characteristics in River and on Land Induced by the Great East Japan Earthquake 2011,” J. of Earthquake and Tsunami, Vol.6, No.3, Article No.1250033, 2012.
  4. [4] R. Paulik et al., “Tsunami Hazard and Built Environment Damage Observations from Palu City After the September 28 2018 Sulawesi Earthquake and Tsunami,” Pure and Applied Geophysics, Vol.176, No.8, pp. 3305-3321, 2019.
  5. [5] A. Muhari, F. Imamura, T. Arikawa, A. R. Hakim, and B. Afriyanto, “Solving the Puzzle of the September 2018 Palu, Indonesia, Tsunami Mystery: Clues from the Tsunami Waveform and the Initial Field Survey Data,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.13, Sci. Comm., sc20181108, 2018.
  6. [6] R. R. R. Alam et al., “Tsunami-Induced Inundation on the Coast of Palu City,” IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Vol.708, Article No.012003, 2021.
  7. [7] A. R. Gusman et al., “Source Model for the Tsunami Inside Palu Bay Following the 2018 Palu Earthquake, Indonesia,” Geophysical Research Letters, Vol.46, No.15, pp. 8721-8730, 2019.
  8. [8] S. Koshimura and N. Shuto, “Response to the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster,” Philosophical Trans. of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol.373, No.2053, Article No.20140373, 2015.
  9. [9] N. Horspool et al., “A Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment for Indonesia,” Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, Vol.14, No.11, pp. 3105-3122, 2014.
  10. [10] A. Raby, J. Macabuag, A. Pomonis, S. Wilkinson, and T. Rosetto, “Implications of the 2011 Great East Japan Tsunami on Sea Defence Design,” Int. J. of Disaster Risk Reduction, Vol.14, Part 4, pp. 332-346, 2015.
  11. [11] D. Ning et al., “Extreme Wave Run-Up and Pressure on a Vertical Seawall,” Applied Ocean Research, Vol.67, pp. 188-200, 2017.
  12. [12] P. Prabu, S. M. Bhallamudi, A. Chaudhuri, and S. A. Sannasiraj, “Numerical Investigations for Mitigation of Tsunami Wave Impact on Onshore Buildings Using Sea Dikes,” Ocean Engineering, Vol.187, Article No.106159, 2019.
  13. [13] S. Rahman, S. Akib, M. T. R. Khan, and S. M. Shirazi, “Experimental Study on Tsunami Risk Reduction on Coastal Building Fronted by Sea Wall,” The Scientific World J., Vol.2014, Article No.729357, 2014.
  14. [14] R. Nateghi, J. D. Bricker, S. D. Guikema, and A. Bessho, “Statistical Analysis of the Effectiveness of Seawalls and Coastal Forests in Mitigating Tsunami Impacts in Iwate and Miyagi Prefectures,” PLOS ONE, Vol.11, No.8, Article No.e0158375, 2016.
  15. [15] K. Pakoksung, A. Suppasri, and F. Imamura, “Systematic Evaluation of Different Infrastructure Systems for Tsunami Defense in Sendai City,” Geosciences, Vol.8, No.5, Article No.173, 2018.
  16. [16] S. Koshimura, S. Hayashi, and H. Gokon, “Lessons from the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami Disaster,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.8, No.4, pp. 549-560, 2013.
  17. [17] Syamsidik et al., “Assessing the Tsunami Mitigation Effectiveness of the Planned Banda Aceh Outer Ring Road (BORR), Indonesia,” Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, Vol.19, No.1, pp. 299-312, 2019.
  18. [18] A. Nurhasanah, Nizam, and R. Triatmadja, “Tsunami Force on a Building with Sea Wall Protection,” Proc. of the 3rd Int. Conf. on Engineering & Technology Development, pp. 62-64, 2014.
  19. [19] Ministy of Public Works and Housing, Repbulic of Indonesia, “The Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Palu Coastal Protection,” Document No.IKAJV-D-Env-004, 2019.
  20. [20] Indonesian National Earthquake Center (PuSGeN), “Earthquake Source & Hazard Maps of Indonesia 2017,” 2017.
  21. [21] Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Daerah (BAPPEDA) Kota Palu, “The Regional Medium Term Development Plan of Palu City Period 2016-2021 (RPJMD Kota Palu),” pp. II-2-II-18, 2017.
  22. [22] G. S. Prasetya, W. P. De Lange, and T. R. Healy, “The Makassar Strait Tsunamigenic Region, Indonesia,” Natural Hazards, Vol.24, No.3, pp. 295-307, 2001.
  23. [23] Badan Informasi Geospasial Republik Indonesia (Geospatial Information Agency of Indonesia), Topography, Bathymetry, and Landcover Data, [accessed October 31, 2020]
  24. [24] S. C. Selvan and R. S. Kankara, “Tsunami Model Simulation for 26 December 2004 and its Effect on Koodankulam Region of Tamil Nadu Coast,” The Int. J. of Ocean and Climate Systems, Vol.7, No.2, pp. 62-69, 2016.
  25. [25] Fachrurrazi, Syamsidik, M. Al’ala, and W. Mahardi, “Numerical Simulations of Tsunami Waves Impacts on Ulee Lheue Harbour in Banda Aceh-Indonesia,” IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Vol.56, Article No.012015, 2017.
  26. [26] A. Apotsos, M. Buckley, G. Gelfenbaum, B. Jaffe, and D. Vatvani, “Nearshore Tsunami Inundation Model Validation: Toward Sediment Transport Applications,” Pure and Applied Geophysics, Vol.168, No.11, pp. 2097-2119, 2011.
  27. [27] M. R. Purnama et al., “Development of Tsunami Inundation Map for the Coast of Palu City,” IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Vol.737, Article No.012049, 2021.
  28. [28] B. A. D. Van Veen, D. Vatvani, and F. Zijl, “Tsunami Flood Modelling for Aceh & West Sumatra and its Application for an Early Warning System,” Continental Shelf Research, Vol.79, pp. 46-53, 2014.
  29. [29] Y. Okada, “Surface Deformation Due to Shear and Tensile Faults in a Half-Space,” Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol.75, No.4, pp. 1135-1154, 1985.
  30. [30] W. Lu, Y. Jiang, and J. Lin, “Modeling Propagation of 2011 Honshu Tsunami,” Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics, Vol.7, No.4, pp. 507-518, 2013.
  31. [31] M. van Ormondt, K. Nederhoff, and A. van Dongeren, “Delft Dashboard: A Quick Set-Up Tool for Hydrodynamic Models,” J. of Hydroinformatics, Vol.22, No.3, pp. 510-527, 2020.
  32. [32] Deltares, “Delft3D-FLOW, User Manual,” 2019.
  33. [33] M. Farid, A. Mano, and K. Udo, “Urban Flood Inundation Model for High Density Building Area,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.7, No.5, pp. 554-559, 2012.
  34. [34] L. Tang, V. V. Titov, and C. D. Chamberlin, “Development, Testing, and Applications of Site-Specific Tsunami Inundation Models for Real-Time Forecasting,” J. of Geophysical Research, Vol.114, No.C12, Article No.C12025, 2009.
  35. [35] Y. I. Sihombing et al., “Tsunami Overland Flow Characteristic and its Effect on Palu Bay Due to the Palu Tsunami 2018,” J. of Earthquake and Tsunami, Vol.14, No.2, Article No.2050009, 2020.
  36. [36] A. Prawirabhakti and V. W. Andiese, “Numerical Model of Manning Roughness Coefficient Effect on Water Level Rise in Palu Bay,” Jurnal Teknik Sipil Infrastruktur, Vol.5, No.1, pp. 1-8, 2015 (in Indonesian).
  37. [37] B. C. Papazachos, E. M. Scordilis, D. G. Panagiotopoulos, C. B. Papazachos, and G. Karakaisis, “Global Relations Between Seismic Fault Parameters and Moment Magnitude of Earthquakes,” Bulletin of the Geological Society of Greece, Vol.36, No.3, pp. 1482-1489, 2004.
  38. [38] H. Matsutomi, K. Okamoto, and K. Harada, “Inundation Flow Velocity of Tsunami on Land and its Practical Use,” Coastal Engineering Proc., No.32, Article No.currents.5, doi: 10.9753/icce.v32.currents.5, 2011.

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, Opera.

Last updated on Feb. 01, 2023