JDR Vol.17 No.1 pp. 31-42
doi: 10.20965/jdr.2022.p0031


Portrait of Indonesian Family During One Year the COVID-19 Pandemic: Analysis of Factors Influencing Family Welfare and Resilience

Euis Sunarti*1,†, Aliya Faizah Fithriyah*2, Nikmatul Khoiriyah*2, Winny Novyanti*2, Intan Islamia*3, and Viena R Hasanah*4

*1Department of Family and Consumer Sciences, Faculty of Human Ecology, Bogor Agriculture University
Jl. Lingkar Kampus IPB Dramaga, Bogor, West Java 16610, Indonesia

Corresponding author

*2Working Group on Family research, GiGa Indonesia, Bogor, Indonesia

*3Raden Intan Islamic State University of Lampung, Lampung, Indonesia

*4Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Bandung, Indonesia

October 13, 2021
December 19, 2021
January 30, 2022
economic pressure, family resilience, food coping strategies, stress, welfare

This study aimed to capture aspects of Indonesian family life during a year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Data collected through online questionnaire survey, followed by 1048 participants with wide-ranged socio-economic status. The COVID-19 pandemic expands the vulnerability of families, brings economic pressure, symptoms of stress, disrupts food security and psychological welfare. However, the family tries to overcome and balance it by managing resources and increasing interaction and worship. They believe they can overcome problems, accompanied by the belief that the pandemic is a trial from the Almighty. An interesting finding was that during a pandemic, many families were stepping up their donations. The important findings of this study are the higher the stress level, the lower the social welfare, psychological welfare, and family resilience. Meanwhile, the social and psychological welfare of the family is positively influenced by the welfare of the child. Family resilience is directly and positively influenced by food coping strategies and social welfare, but is negatively affected by perceived stress symptoms. Economic pressures lead to higher social welfare which is manifested by better communication, decision making, donation, and family time management. The findings of this survey show the importance of families managing stressors and increasing family resilience.

Cite this article as:
E. Sunarti, A. Fithriyah, N. Khoiriyah, W. Novyanti, I. Islamia, and V. Hasanah, “Portrait of Indonesian Family During One Year the COVID-19 Pandemic: Analysis of Factors Influencing Family Welfare and Resilience,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.17 No.1, pp. 31-42, 2022.
Data files:
  1. [1] C. Yang, W. Liu, Y. Chen et al., “Prevalence and risk factors for mental health symptoms in community epidemic prevention workers during the postpandemic era of COVID-19 in China,” Psychiatry Res., Vol.304, Article No.114132, doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2021.114132, 2021.
  2. [2] WHO, “WHO Coronavirus (COVID-19) Dashboard,” 2021, [accessed October 7, 2021]
  3. [3] Tempo, “Jumlah Kematian COVID-19 Menurun di September 2021,” 2021, (in Indonesian) [accessed October 7, 2021]
  4. [4] E. Sunarti, “Ketahanan Keluarga Indonesia di Masa Pandemi Covid 19,” PT Penerbit IPB Press, 2021 (in Indonesian).
  5. [5] E. Ino and K. Watanabe, “The impact of COVID-19 on the global supply chain: A discussion on decentralization of the supply chain and ensuring interoperability,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.16, No.1, pp. 56-60, doi: 10.20965/jdr.2021.p0056, 2021.
  6. [6] A. Yasui and M. Numada, “A report of the questionnaire survey on awareness of COVID-19 and shelters,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.16, No.4, pp. 747-764, doi: 10.20965/jdr.2021.p0747, 2021.
  7. [7] T. Sontayasara, S. Jariyapongpaiboon, A. Promjun et al., “Twitter Sentiment Analysis of Bangkok Tourism During COVID-19 Pandemic Using Support Vector Machine Algorithm,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.16, No.1, pp. 24-30, doi: 10.20965/jdr.2021.p0024, 2021.
  8. [8] FAO, “Mozambique: Addressing the impacts of COVID-19 in food crises,” 2020.
  9. [9] R. Datta, J. Chapola, P. Datta, and P. Datta, “The COVID-19 Pandemic: An Immigrant Family Story on Reconnection, Resistance, and Resiliency,” J. Comp. Fam. Stud., Vol.51, No.3-4, pp. 429-444, 2020.
  10. [10] E. Sunarti, D. Kamilah, H. Almas, and S. Pitriani, “Family Subjective Well-Being of Health Workers Women During the COVID-19 Pandemic,” J. Fam. Sci., Vol.5, No.2, pp. 103-120, 2021.
  11. [11] C. Lakner, N. Yonzandaniel, D. G. Mahlerr, R. A. C. Aguilar, and H. Wu, “Updated estimates of the impact of COVID-19 on global poverty: Looking back at 2020 and the outlook for 2021,” World Bank Blogs, 2021, [accessed October 7, 2021]
  12. [12] A. Suryahadi, R. A. Izzati, and D. Suryadarma, “Estimating the Impact of Covid-19 on Poverty in Indonesia,” Bull. Indones. Econ. Stud., Vol.56, No.2, pp. 175-192, doi: 10.1080/00074918.2020.1779390, 2020.
  13. [13] E. Sunarti, E. Gunawan, S. Widiyantoro, G. I. Marliyani, and R. Ida, “Critical point on housing construction, resilience and family subjective welfare after disaster: Notes from the Lombok, Indonesia, earthquake sequence of July-August 2018,” Geomatics, Nat Hazards Risk, Vol.12, No.1, pp. 922-938, doi: 10.1080/19475705.2021.1910576, 2021.
  14. [14] M. Ali, Z. Uddin, and A. Hossain, “Economic stressors and mental health symptoms among Bangladeshi rehabilitation professionals: A cross-sectional study amid COVID-19 pandemic,” Heliyon, Vol.7, No.4, e06715, doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e06715, 2021.
  15. [15] F. Walsh, “Family resilience: a developmental systems framework,” Eur. J. Dev. Psychol., Vol.13, No.3, pp. 313-324, 2016.
  16. [16] J. Pinchoff, E. L. Friesen, B. Kangwana et al., “How Has COVID-19-Related Income Loss and Household Stress Affected Adolescent Mental Health in Kenya?,” J. Adolesc Heal, Vol.69, No.5, pp. 713-720, doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2021.07.023, 2021.
  17. [17] M. Cui and P. Hong, “COVID-19 and Mental Health of Young Adult Children in China: Economic Impact, Family Dynamics, and Resilience,” Family Relations, Vol.70, No.5, pp. 1358-1368, doi: 10.1111/fare.12573, 2021.
  18. [18] T. Marinaci, L. Carpinelli, C. Venuleo, G. Savarese, and P. Cavallo, “Emotional distress, psychosomatic symptoms and their relationship with institutional responses: A survey of Italian frontline medical staff during the Covid-19 pandemic,” Heliyon, Vol.6, No.12, e05766, doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e05766, 2020.
  19. [19] G. K. K. Chung, S.-M. Chan, Y.-H. Chan, J. Woo, H. Wong, S. Y. Wong, E. K. Yeoh, M. Marmot, and R. Y. Chung, “Socioeconomic Patterns of COVID-19 Clusters in Low-Incidence City, Hong Kong,” Emerg Infect Dis., Vol.27, No.11, doi: 10.3201/eid2711.204840, 2021.
  20. [20] D. R. Singh, D. R. Sunuwar, S. K. Shah, L. K. Sah, K. Karki, and R. K. Sah, “Food insecurity during COVID-19 pandemic: A genuine concern for people from disadvantaged community and low-income families in Province 2 of Nepal,” PLoS ONE, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0254954, 2021.
  21. [21] E. O. Ananat and A. Gassman-Pines, “Snapshot of the COVID Crisis Impact on Working Families,” ECONOFACT, 2020, [accessed October 7, 2021]
  22. [22] P. H. Nguyen, S. Kachwaha, A. Pant, L. M. Tran, S. Ghosh, P. K. Sharma et al., “Impact of COVID-19 on household food insecurity and interlinkages with child feeding practices and coping strategies in Uttar Pradesh, India: A longitudinal community-based study,” BMJ Open, Vol.11, No.4, doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-048738, 2021.
  23. [23] S. C. Mandal, P. Boidya, M. I.-M. Haque, A. Hossain, Z. Shams, and A.-A. Mamun, “The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on fish consumption and household food security in Dhaka city, Bangladesh,” Glob Food Sec., Vol.29, doi: 10.1016/j.gfs.2021.100526, 2021.
  24. [24] G. Ares, I. Bove, L. Vidal, G. Brunet, D. Fuletti, Á. Arroyo, and M. V. Blanc, “The experience of social distancing for families with children and adolescents during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic in Uruguay: Difficulties and opportunities,” Children and Youth Services Review, Vol.121, doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2020.105906, 2020.
  25. [25] A. Quílez-Robres, R. Lozano-Blasco, T. Íñiguez-Berrozpe, and A. Cortés-Pascual, “Social, Family, and Educational Impacts on Anxiety and Cognitive Empathy Derived From the COVID-19: Study on Families With Children,” Frontiers in Psychology, doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.562800, 2021.
  26. [26] F. Khademian, S. Delavari, Z. Koohjani, and Z. Khademian, “An investigation of depression, anxiety, and stress and its relating factors during COVID-19 pandemic in Iran,” BMC Public Health, Vol.21, Article No.275, 2021.
  27. [27] C. Y.-C. Chen, E. Byrne, and T. Vélez, “Impact of the 2020 pandemic of COVID-19 on Families with School-aged Children in the United States: Roles of Income Level and Race,” J. of Family Issues, doi: 10.1177/0192513X21994153, 2021.
  28. [28] B. Tarsuslu, A. Sahin, G. Durat, and D. Arikan, “An analysis of parents’ perceived stress and the parent-child relationship during the COVID-19 pandemic,” Bangladesh J. Med. Sci., Vol.20, pp. 97-107, doi: 10.3329/bjms.v20i5.55402, 2021.
  29. [29], “Indonesia Among the Most Charitable Countries in the World,” [accessed October 7, 2021]
  30. [30] F. Ellis, “The Determinants of Rural Livelihood Diversification in Developing Countries,” J. Agric Econ, Vol.51, No.2, pp. 289-302, 2000.
  31. [31] I. Scoones, “Sustainable rural livelihood: A Framework for Analysis,” IDS Working Paper, No.72, 1998.
  32. [32] DFID (Department for International Development), “Sustainable livelihood guidance sheets,” 2000, [accessed January 29, 2014]
  33. [33] F. Ellis, “Household strategies and rural livelihood diversification,” J. Dev. Stud., Vol.35, No.1, pp. 1-38, 1998.
  34. [34] G. Crow, “The Use of the Concept of ‘Strategy’ in Recent Sociological Literature,” Sociology, Vol.23, No.1, pp. 1-24, 1989.
  35. [35] L. J. De Haan, “Globalization, localization, and sustainable livelihood,” Sociol Ruralis, Vol.40, No.3, pp. 339-365, 2000.
  36. [36] N. Steiber, C. Siegert, and S. Vogtenhuber, “The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the employment situation and financial well-being of families with children in Austria: Evidence from the first ten months of the crisis,” SocArXiv Papers, doi: 10.31235/, 2021.
  37. [37] R. M. Berns, “Child, Family, School, Community: Socialization and Support,” 4th edition, Harcourt Brace College Publisher, pp. 442-443, 453, 464, 1997.
  38. [38] R. G. Myers, “The Twelve Who Survive. Strengthening Programmes of Early Childhood Development in the Third World,” Routledge, pp. 57-59, 268-272, 1992.
  39. [39] G. K. Tiwari, A. K. Singh, P. Parihar, R. Pandey, D. N. Sharma, and P. K. Rai, “Understanding the perceived psychological distress and health outcomes of children during COVID-19 pandemic,” Educ. Dev. Psychol., doi: 10.1080/20590776.2021.1899749, 2021.
  40. [40] R. Mitra, E. O. D. Waygood, and J. Fullan, “Subjective well-being of Canadian children and youth during the COVID-19 pandemic: The role of the social and physical environment and healthy movement behaviours,” Prev. Med. Reports, Vol.23, 101404, doi: 10.1016/j.pmedr.2021.101404, 2021.
  41. [41] E. Sunarti, R. Rizkillah, A. H. Rahmah, H. R. Naziah, and Nabilah, “Factors Affecting the Output of Family Resilience during the COVID-19 Pandemic in the Jabodetabek Area,” Proc. of the 3rd Int. Seminar on Family and Consumer Issues in Asia Pacific, pp. 7-19, 2021.
  42. [42] R. Chairani, A. Y. S. Hamid, J. Sahar, E. Nurachmah, and T. E. Budhi, “Strengthening resilience in families of street adolescents with embedding spiritual values,” Enferm Clin, Vol.29, pp. 600-605, doi: 10.1016/j.enfcli.2019.06.009, 2019.
  43. [43] A. M. Nasih, N. Faizin, A. Sultoni, and T. Thoriquttyas, “Theological Perspective of Nahdlatul Ulama and Muhammadiyyah Leaders in Facing the COVID-19 Pandemic,” AL-A’RAF: J. Pemikir Islam dan Filsafat, Vol.18, No.1, doi: 10.22515/ajpif.v18i1.3631, 2021.
  44. [44] E. Sunarti, “Indikator Keluara Sejahtera: Sejarah Pengembangan, Evaluasi, dan Keberlanjutannya,” Fakultas Ekologi Manusia, ISBN 978-979-15786-3-9, 2008.
  45. [45] B. Davidson, E. Schmidt, C. Mallar et al., “Risk and resilience of well-being in caregivers of young children in response to the COVID-19 pandemic,” Transl. Behav. Med., Vol.11, No.2, pp. 305-313, 2021.
  46. [46] A. E. Goldberg, N. McCormick, and H. Virginia, “Parenting in a Pandemic: Work–Family Arrangements, Well-Being, and Intimate Relationships Among Adoptive Parents,” Family Relations, Vol.70, No.1, pp. 7-25, 2021.
  47. [47] E. O. Ananat and A. Gassman-Pines, “Work Schedule Unpredictability: Daily Occurrence and Effects on Working Parents’ Well-Being,” J. Marriage Fam., Vol.83, No.1, pp. 10-26, 2021.
  48. [48] X. Zhuang, Y. Y. Lau, W. M. H. Chan, B. S. C. Lee, and D. F. K. Wong, “Risk and resilience of vulnerable families in Hong Kong under the impact of COVID-19: An ecological resilience perspective,” Soc. Psychiatry Psychiatr. Epidemiol., doi: 10.1007/s00127-021-02117-6, 2021.
  49. [49] C. D. Ryff and C. L. M. Keyes, “The structure of psychological well-being revisited,” J. Pers. Soc. Psychol., Vol.69, No.4, pp. 719-727, 1995.
  50. [50] M. L. Kerr, H. F. Rasmussen, K. A. Fanning, and S. M. Braaten, “Parenting During COVID-19: A Study of Parents’ Experiences Across Gender and Income Levels,” Family Relations, Vol.70, No.5, pp. 1327-1342, 2021.
  51. [51] R. Veenhoven and P. Bakker, “Level of Education and Psychological Well-Being,” Department of Sociology, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 1977.
  52. [52] J. C. Plumb, “The Impact of Social Support and Family Resilience on Parental Stress in Families with a Child Diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder,” Doctorate in Social Work (DSW) Dissertations, The University of Pennsylvania, 2011.
  53. [53] L. Noorafshan, B. Jowkar, and F. S. Hosseini, “Effect of Family Communication Patterns of Resilience among Iranian Adolescents,” Procedia: Soc. Behav. Sci., Vol.84, pp. 900-904, 2013.
  54. [54] Z. Dou, D. Stefanovski, D. Galligan et al., “Household Food Dynamics and Food System Resilience Amid the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-National Comparison of China and the United States,” Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, doi: 10.3389/fsufs.2020.577153, 2021.
  55. [55] H. A. Ruszczyk, M. F. Rahman, L. J. Bracken, and S. Sudha, “Contextualizing the COVID-19 pandemic’s impact on food security in two small cities in Bangladesh,” Environ Urban, Vol.33, No.1, pp. 239-254, 2021.
  56. [56] T. K. Neppl, S. Jeon, T. J. Schofield, and M. B. Donnellan, “The Impact of Economic Pressure on Parent Positivity, Parenting, and Adolescent Positivity into Emerging Adulthood,” Family Relations, Vol.64, No.1, pp. 80-92, 2015.
  57. [57] C. M. Lombardi, “Family income and mothers’ parenting quality: Within-family associations from infancy to late childhood,” Child Youth Serv. Rev., Vol.120, doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2020.105799, 2021.

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, Opera.

Last updated on Jul. 12, 2024