Disaster Relief Funding by Private Grants and POs: Actors Supporting “Paradise” After Disaster
Faculty of Public Affairs, Osaka University of Commerce
4-1-10 Mikuriyasakae-machi, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577-8505, Japan
Following various tragic accidents, a civil society utopia has emerged to overcome the terrible situations through altruistic behaviors and mutual aid. Rebecca Solnit describes it as “a paradise built in hell.” As a means for civil society to support large-scale disasters, assistance is provided directly or indirectly through financial donations, relief supplies, or sending volunteers to disaster-affected areas. Such disaster relief assistance emerged post the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE). Indirect disaster relief takes the form of making contributions to nonprofit organizations (NPOs) to support disaster-stricken areas and people. Despite grants provided to NPOs, obtaining comprehensive data on their activities is difficult because of the enormous assistance they receive. Thus, research on civil society’s private disaster relief funding systems for the GEJE works remains limited. Additionally, it is difficult to deduce the number of program officers (POs) in charge of disaster relief activities for the GEJE. These POs belong to various foundations, companies, and NPOs. Apart from NPOs or charitable foundations, private companies have also established disaster relief grant systems for NPOs to aid disaster relief assistance. This study addresses the above concerns by reporting recent survey results to understand the role of private grants and POs in managing fund distribution to the NPOs working for the GEJE disaster relief. The study concludes from the survey that at least 25 private grant systems were launched, and they supplied more than JPY 40.57 billion (USD 391.26 million) from 2011 to 2020 for disaster relief activities by NPOs.
-  Sphere Association, “The Sphere Handbook: Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Humanitarian Response,” 4th edition, 2018.
-  T. Sugano, “Saigaitaiougabanansu: Hisaishashien no konran wo tomeru,” Nakanishiya Shuppan, 2021 (in Japanese).
-  R. Solnit, “A Paradise Built in Hell: The Extraordinary Communities That Arise in Disaster,” Penguin, 2010.
-  T. Nakajima, H. Baba, and Y. Ishida, “Visualizing relief funds flow for the great east Japan earthquake: Trial study to construct an inflow and outflow matrix model,” Kansai University Review of Business and Commerce, Vol.17, pp. 1-25, 2017.
-  A. Iizuka and Y. Ishida (Trans.), “Higashinihondaishinsai no kyokun: Hukkou ni okeru nettowaaku to gabanansu no igi,” Minerva shobo, 2021 (in Japanese) (translation of D. P. Aldrich. “Black Waves,” University of Chicago, 2019).
-  N. Shuto, “Damage and reconstruction at Okushiri town caused by the 1993 Hokkaido Nansei-Oki Earthquake Tsunami,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.2, No.1, pp. 44-49, doi: 10.20965/jdr.2007.p0044, 2007.
-  S. Nagamatsu, Y. Fukasawa, and I. Kobayashi, “Why does disaster storytelling matter for a resilient society?,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.16, No.2, pp. 127-134, doi: 10.20965/jdr.2021.p0127, 2021.
-  The Japan Institute for Labour Policy and Training (JILPT), “Survey on NPO’s activities and work (individual survey),” 2015 (in Japanese).
-  T. Makita, “Proguramuofisa: Jyoseikinhaibun to syakaitekikachi no souzou,” Gakuyou shobo, 2007 (in Japanese).
-  Grant Program Officers Network (GPON), https://blog.canpan.info/gpon/index-2.html (in Japanese) [accessed May 29, 2021]
-  The Japan Voluntary Organizations Active in Disaster (JVOAD), http://jvoad.jp/ (in Japanese) [accessed May 29, 2021]
-  The Japan Civil Network (JCN), https://jpn-civil.net/2014/english/ [accessed May 29, 2021]
-  Bank of Japan, BOJ Time-series Data Search, https://www.stat-search.boj.or.jp/index_en.html [accessed May 25, 2021]
-  H. Sakurai and M. Shinoki, “Donation activities and social contributions of the Japanese business community: Focusing on reconstruction activities after earthquake disasters in Japan,” The Jpn. J. Policy and Cult. (JJPC), Vol.28, pp. 85-96, 2020 (in Japanese).
-  E. James, “The private nonprofit provision of education: A theoretical model and application to Japan,” J. Comp. Econ., Vol.10, No.3, pp. 255-276, 1986.
-  L. K. Comfort, “Crisis management in hindsight: Cognition, communication, coordination, and control,” Public Admin. Rev., Vol.67, No.s1, pp. 189-197, 2007.
-  J. Tirole, “Economics for the Common Good,” Princeton University Press, 2017.
This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.