Making Evacuation Routine Behavior: Impact of Experiencing Severe Flood Damage on Recognition and Advance Evacuation Behavior
Masato Tanaka and Minori Shimomura
Department of Regional Development Studies, Otemon Gakuin University
2-1-15 Nishi-ai, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-8502, Japan
This study analyzes the impact of experiencing a disaster on subsequent risk recognition and evacuation behavior using data collated from the interview of victims of the flood and landslides that followed the 2014 Hiroshima Heavy Rain Disaster. The high accuracy of the storm and flood damage prediction system has made it possible to limit human casualties by routinizing advance evacuation behavior. The study explores conditions for the routinization of evacuation behavior and its findings are as follows: (i) a series of experiences such as timing of incidental awareness, evacuation, housing damage, and human damage define the damage recognition of each victim. The difference between each damage recognition has different influences on their post-disaster risk recognition and behaviors; (ii) experiencing severe disasters generally enhances disaster risk recognition. However, whether it promotes advanced evacuation behavior is dependent on the magnitude of the damage and pre-disaster risk recognition. If risk recognition is ambiguous, the effect of the experience is minimal even if the damage is severe; (iii) for disaster victims to inculcate an evacuation behavior in preparation for the next disaster, they must first have clear pre-disaster risk recognition mechanisms. It is also necessary to have a reliable destination that is incorporated into the daily life of the residents, which can serve as an evacuation site.
-  I. Nakamura, “Flood and Information,” Fire and Disaster Management College, J. of Firefighting Training, No.85, pp. 57-74, 2009 (in Japanese).
-  Y. Tada, “Historical Transition of Natural Disaster and Land, Forest-use in Japan,” Water Science, Vol.62, Issue 4, pp. 121-137, doi: 10.20820/suirikagaku.62.4_121, 2018 (in Japanese).
-  N. Shuto, S. Ikeda, and S. Egashira, “Meteorological Disasters and Water Disasters in Urban Areas,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.2, No.3, p. 133, doi: 10.20965/jdr.2007.p0133, 2007.
-  Y. Takahashi, “Kawa to Kokudo no Kiki (River and National Crisis),” Iwanami Shoten, 2012 (in Japanese).
-  M. Tanaka, “Destruction and renaissance of the urban space, Creating and dismantling urban policy: from the perspective of Japan’s modernization and repeated natural disasters,” N. Inoue and V. Orioli (Eds.), “Bologna and Kanazawa: Protection and valorization of two historic cities,” Boronia University Press, 2020.
-  Technical Note of National Institute for Land and Infrastructure Management, No.682, 2012 (in Japanese).
-  S. Yasumoto, M. Ushiyama, and N. Sekiya, “Analysis on evacuation behavior during the typhoon No.1610 disaster in Iwaizumi town,” J. of Japan Society for Natural Disaster Science, Vol.37, Issue S05, pp. 33-45, doi: 10.24762/jndsj.37.S05_33, 2018 (in Japanese).
-  Central Disaster Management Council, “Saigai-ji no Hinan ni kansuru Senmonchosakai Houkoku (Report of the Special Investigation Committee on Evacuation at the Time of Disaster),” 2012 (in Japanese).
-  T. Katada and M. Kodama, “Research on acquisition of disaster information and evacuation behavior in heavy rainfall disaster in Tokai district,” Advances in River Engineering, Vol.7, 2001 (in Japanese).
-  K. Shimazaki, H. Nakajima et al., “Gaps Between the Transmission and Reception of Information on Rainfall Amounts,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.13, No.5, pp. 879-885, doi: 10.20965/jdr.2018.p0879, 2018.
-  N. Ogasawara and K. Oofuji, “Linguistic Analysis of Water/landslide Disaster Warnings,” J. of Disaster Information Studies, No.15-1, pp. 17-26, 2017 (in Japanese).
-  Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport, “Questionnaire results,” https://www.mlit.go.jp/river/sabo/committee_jikkousei/190328/09sankoshiryo4.pdf (in Japanese) [accessed July 14, 2020]
-  K. Urabe, H. Hayashi et al., “Design Principles for Visualization of Public Information for Effective Disaster Reduction,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.5, No.1, pp. 31-44, doi: 10.20965/jdr.2010.p0031, 2010.
-  H. H. P. Gironda, S. Sadohara et al., “Empirical Data Analysis and Simulation Modeling for Evacuation Movement with the Presence of Irregular Non-Continuous Exterior Stairs,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.11, No.1, pp. 136-146, doi: 10.20965/jdr.2016.p0136, 2016.
-  M. F. Shah and P. Sultan, “Lessons Learnt from Communication for Disaster Preparedness: A Study on Six Survivors from the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami 2011,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.9, No.5, pp. 879-886, doi: 10.20965/jdr.2014.p0879, 2014.
-  H. Miyake, H. Hayashi et al., “Development of Science-Based Decision Support System for Evaluating the Safety of Evacuation Facilities in Case of Torrential Rains,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.10, No.3, pp. 535-550, doi: 10.20965/jdr.2015.p0535, 2015.
-  T. Kinoshita, Y. Aoyagi et al., “Perspective of psychological process for evacuation behavior in storm and flood damage,” J. of Japan Society of Erosion Control Engineering, Vol.63, No.4, pp. 4-15, doi: 10.11475/sabo.63.4_4, 2010 (in Japanese).
-  M. N. Ahsan, K. Vink et al., “A Systematic Review of the Factors Affecting the Cyclone Evacuation Decision Process in Bangladesh,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.11, No.4, pp. 742-753, doi: 10.20965/jdr.2016.p0742, 2016.
-  O. Hiroi, I. Nakamura et al., “The problem of information Dissemination and Inhabitants Behaviors of Local Severe Rain in Niigata and Fukushima,2004,” Research survey reports in information studies, Interfaculty initiative in information studies, The University of Tokyo, pp. 163-285, 2005 (in Japanese).
-  H. Hirose, “Disaster Science for Survival: Nature, Human, Civilization,” Shinyosha, 1984 (in Japanese).
-  S. Joo, T. Kashiyama et al., “An Analysis of Factors Influencing Disaster Mobility Using Location Data from Smartphones: Case Study of Western Japan Flooding,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.14, No.6, pp. 903-911, doi: 10.20965/jdr.2019.p0903, 2019.
-  J. Horney, C. Snider et al., “Factors Associated with Hurricane Preparedness: Results of a Pre-Hurricane Assessment,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.3, No.2, pp. 143-149, doi: 10.20965/jdr.2008.p0143, 2008.
-  M. Tanaka, “The Study of Consciousness Structure for Relocation of the Community in the Historical Landscape District under the Risk of Tsunami Disaster – Case of Kuroe-Fukuo District, Kainan City, Wakayama Prefecture –,” J. of Social Safety Science, No.27, pp. 129-136, doi: 10.11314/jisss.27.129, 2015 (in Japanese).
-  I. Nakamura, “Acceptance of Warnings and Evacuation Advisories: Focusing on Tsunami Evacuation,” J. Tanaka and H. Yoshii, “Introduction to Disaster Information Theory,” Kobundo, pp. 95-107, 2009 (in Japanese).
-  M. Ushiyama, “Characteristics and Issues of Victims in the Case of Hiroshima Heavy Rain Disaster in August 2014,” Cabinet Office, Comprehensive Disaster Countermeasure Working Group, http://www.bousai.go.jp/fusuigai/dosyaworking/pdf/dai3kai/siryo2_2.pdf (in Japanese) [accessed July 14, 2020]
-  Y. Oikawa and T. Katada, “Evacuation Guidance Scheme considering Motivation to Search Disaster Information,” J. of Disaster Information Studies, No.15-1, pp. 1-16, 2017 (in Japanese).
-  N. Sekiya, “Problems related to Evacuation,” 21st Century Human Interaction Research Center, The future of Modern People Minds: Various Aspects of Human Interaction 3, pp. 5-34, 2013 (in Japanese).
-  J. Kanai and S. Nakano, “Evacuation Behavior of Facilities for the Elderly in the Heavy Rain of July 2018,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.14, No.6, pp. 922-935, doi: 10.20965/jdr.2019.p0922, 2019.
-  K. Ikeuchi, S. Ochi et al., “Estimating the Number of Isolated People and Isolated Time in the Event of a Large-scale Flood and the Effect Analysis of Mitigation Measures,” J. of Japan Society of Civil Engineers, Ser. B1, Vol.67, No.3, pp. 145-154, 2011 (in Japanese).