JDR Vol.16 No.1 pp. 70-83
doi: 10.20965/jdr.2021.p0070


Characteristic Features of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic: Attention to the Management and Control in Egypt

Nourhan H. El-Subbagh*1, Rana Rabie*2, Aya A. Mahfouz*1, Khaled M. Aboelsuod*1, Mohamed Y. Elshabrawy*1, Haneen M. Abdelaleem*1, Basant E. Elhammady*1, Weam Abosaleh*1, Lamiaa A. Salama*1, Sara Badreldeen*3, Mohamed Yasser*4, and Abdelaziz Elgaml*1,*5,†

*1Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Horus University
New Damietta 34518, Egypt

Corresponding author

*2Gastroenterology Surgical Center, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt

*3Oncology Center, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt

*4Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Horus University, New Damietta, Egypt

*5Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt

November 20, 2020
December 12, 2020
January 30, 2021
COVID-19, Egypt, pandemic features, SARS-CoV-2, preventive measures

In the late of 2019, unfamiliar cases of pneumonia were announced in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China that resulted in high mortality rates of 2%. Shortly, these cases were reported to be brought about by a novel type of coronaviruses named as novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease caused by this novel virus is designated as coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Instantly afterwards, this disease exhibited an extreme spreading rate and the infection has geographically shifted to affect the whole world including the Middle East countries involving Egypt. Thus, it is not surprising that a lot of reports and literature have been directed to provide information and describe the clinical features of this pandemic. In this report, we describe in details the characteristic features of COVID-19 pandemic with attention to the management and control in Egypt. Characters of the virus, mode of transmission, pathogenesis, clinical symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are fully described.

Cite this article as:
Nourhan H. El-Subbagh, Rana Rabie, Aya A. Mahfouz, Khaled M. Aboelsuod, Mohamed Y. Elshabrawy, Haneen M. Abdelaleem, Basant E. Elhammady, Weam Abosaleh, Lamiaa A. Salama, Sara Badreldeen, Mohamed Yasser, and Abdelaziz Elgaml, “Characteristic Features of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic: Attention to the Management and Control in Egypt,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.16, No.1, pp. 70-83, 2021.
Data files:
  1. [1] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), “2019 novel coronavirus, Wuhan, China,” January 26, 2020, [accessed January 27, 2020]
  2. [2] A. Gallegos, “WHO declares public health emergency for novel coronavirus,” Medscape Medical News, January 30, 2020, [accessed January 31, 2020]
  3. [3] “W.H.O. declares global emergency as Wuhan coronavirus spreads,” The New York Times, January 30, 2020, [accessed January 30, 2020]
  4. [4] “Coronavirus live updates: WHO declares pandemic as number of infected countries grows,” The New York Times, March 11, 2020, [accessed March 11, 2020]
  5. [5] Y. Abutaleb, “How the new coronavirus differs from SARS, measles and Ebola,” The Washington Post, January 23, 2020, [accessed January 27, 2020]
  6. [6] D. S. Hui et al., “The continuing 2019-nCoV epidemic threat of novel coronaviruses to global health – The latest 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan, China,” Int. J. of Infectious Diseases, Vol.91, pp. 264-266, 2020.
  7. [7] R. Sah et al., “Complete genome sequence of a 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) strain isolated in Nepal,” Microbiology Resource Announcements, Vol.9, doi: 10.1128/MRA.00169-20, 2020.
  8. [8] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), “Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): COVID-19 situation summary,” February 29, 2020, [accessed March 2, 2020]
  9. [9] B. Korber et al., “Spike mutation pipeline reveals the emergence of a more transmissible form of SARS-CoV-2,” bioRxiv preprint, doi: 10.1101/2020.04.29.069054, 2020.
  10. [10] E. Yong, “The problem with stories about dangerous coronavirus mutations,” The Atlantic, May 6, 2020, [accessed June 8, 2020]
  11. [11] N. Chen et al., “Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: A descriptive study,” The Lancet, Vol.395, pp. 395-507, 2020.
  12. [12] World Health Organization (WHO), “Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) situation report-48,” March 8, 2020, [accessed March 8, 2020]
  13. [13] D. Wang et al., “Clinical characteristics of 138 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia in Wuhan, China,” JAMA, Vol.323, pp. 1061-1069, 2020.
  14. [14] C. M. Booth et al., “Clinical features and short-term outcomes of 144 patients with SARS in the Greater Toronto Area,” JAMA, Vol.289, pp. 2801-2809, 2013.
  15. [15] V. J. Munster et al., “A novel coronavirus emerging in China – Key questions for impact assessment,” The New England J. of Medicine, Vol.382, pp. 692-694, 2020.
  16. [16] J. Chen, “Pathogenicity and transmissibility of 2019-nCoV – A quick overview and comparison with other emerging viruses,” Microbes and Infection, Vol.22, pp. 69-71, 2020.
  17. [17] J. Y. Kim et al., “Viral load kinetics of SARS-CoV-2 infection in first two patients in Korea,” J. of Korean Medical Science, Vol.35, doi: 10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e86, 2020.
  18. [18] M. L. Holshue et al., “First case of 2019 novel coronavirus in the United States,” The New England J. of Medicine, Vol.382, pp. 929-936, 2020.
  19. [19] L. Zou et al., “SARS-CoV-2 viral load in upper respiratory specimens of infected patients,” The New England J. of Medicine, Vol.382, pp. 1177-1179, 2020.
  20. [20] C. Yeo et al., “Enteric involvement of coronaviruses: Is fecal-oral transmission of SARS-CoV-2 possible,” The Lancet Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Vol.5, pp. 335-337, 2020.
  21. [21] J. S. M. Peiris et al., “Clinical progression and viral load in a community outbreak of coronavirus-associated SARS pneumonia: A prospective study,” The Lancet, Vol.361, pp. 1767-1772, 2003.
  22. [22] A. Bleibtreu et al., “Focus on Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV),” Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses, Vol.50, pp. 243-251, 2020.
  23. [23] J. Zhou et al., “Human intestinal tract serves as an alternative infection route for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus,” Science Advances, Vol.3, doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aao4966, 2017.
  24. [24] I. Hamming et al., “Tissue distribution of ACE2 protein, the functional receptor for SARS coronavirus. A first step in understanding SARS pathogenesis,” The J. of Pathology, Vol.203, pp. 631-637, 2004.
  25. [25] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), “2019 Novel Coronavirus, Wuhan, China: Frequently asked questions and answers,” January 27, 2020, [accessed January 27, 2020]
  26. [26] N. van Doremalen et al., “Aerosol and surface stability of SARS-CoV-2 as compared with SARS-CoV-1,” The New England J. of Medicine, Vol.382, pp. 1564-1567, 2020.
  27. [27] A. W. H. Chin et al., “Stability of SARS-CoV-2 in different environmental conditions,” The Lancet Microbe, Vol.1, doi: 10.1016/S2666-5247(20)30003-3, 2020.
  28. [28] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), “Coronavirus disease 2019: How it spreads,” May 22, 2020, [accessed June 1, 2020]
  29. [29] R. Wölfel et al., “Virological assessment of hospitalized patients with COVID-2019,” Nature, Vol.581, pp. 465-469, 2020.
  30. [30] F. Zhou et al., “Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: A retrospective cohort study,” The Lancet, Vol.395, pp. 1054-1062, 2020.
  31. [31] Y. Liu et al., “Viral dynamics in mild and severe cases of COVID-19,” The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Vol.20, pp. 656-657, 2020.
  32. [32] B. Zhou et al., “The duration of viral shedding of discharged patients with severe COVID-19,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, Vol.71, pp. 2240-2242, 2020.
  33. [33] B. Mole, “Recovered COVID-19 patients test positive but not infectious, data finds,” Ars Technica, May 19, 2020, [accessed June 1, 2020]
  34. [34] N. H. L. Leung et al., “Respiratory virus shedding in exhaled breath and efficacy of face masks,” Nature Medicine, Vol.26, pp. 676-680, 2020.
  35. [35] J. D. Smith et al., “Effectiveness of N95 respirators versus surgical masks in protecting health care workers from acute respiratory infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis,” Canadian Medical Association J., Vol.188, pp. 567-574, 2016.
  36. [36] S. Bae et al., “Effectiveness of surgical and cotton masks in blocking SARS-CoV-2: A controlled comparison in 4 Patients,” Annals of Internal Medicine, Vol.173, pp. 22-23, 2020.
  37. [37] D. Li et al., “Clinical characteristics and results of semen tests among men with coronavirus disease 2019,” JAMA Network Open, Vol.3, doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.8292, 2020.
  38. [38] Y. Bai et al., “Presumed asymptomatic carrier transmission of COVID-19,” JAMA, Vol.323, pp. 1406-1407, 2020.
  39. [39] P. Yu et al., “A familial cluster of infection associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating potential person-to-person transmission during the incubation period,” The J. of Infectious Diseases, Vol.221, pp. 1757-1761, 2020.
  40. [40] D. P. Oran and E. J. Topol, “Prevalence of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection: A narrative review,” Annals of Internal Medicine, Vol.173, pp. 362-367, 2020.
  41. [41] A. Sakurai et al., “Natural history of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection,” The New England J. of Medicine, Vol.383, pp. 885-886, 2020.
  42. [42] X. He et al., “Temporal dynamics in viral shedding and transmissibility of COVID-19,” Nature Medicine, Vol.26, pp. 672-675, 2020.
  43. [43] A. Breeden, “How an invisible foe slipped aboard a French navy ship,” The New York Times, April 19, 2020, [accessed April 20, 2020]
  44. [44] R. Pickrell, “Sweeping US navy testing reveals most aircraft carrier sailors infected with coronavirus had no symptoms,” Business Insider, April 17, 2020, [accessed April 20, 2020]
  45. [45] T. Romine, ““We need to fix it quickly.” Asymptomatic coronavirus cases at Boston homeless shelter raise red flag,” CNN, April 17, 2020, [accessed April 20, 2020]
  46. [46] T. P. Baggett et al., “Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in residents of a large homeless shelter in Boston,” JAMA, Vol.323, pp. 2191-2192, 2020.
  47. [47] D. Sutton et al., “Universal screening for SARS-CoV-2 in women admitted for delivery,” The New England J. of Medicine, Vol.382, pp. 2163-2164, 2020.
  48. [48] D. F. Gudbjartsson et al., “Spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the Icelandic population,” The New England J. of Medicine, Vol.382, pp. 2302-2315, 2020.
  49. [49] S. M. Sharafi et al., “Environmental disinfection against COVID-19 in different areas of health care facilities: A review,” Reviews on Environmental Health, doi: 10.1515/reveh-2020-0075, 2020.
  50. [50] Coronavirus worldometer, [accessed April 6, 2020]
  51. [51] Y. Wan et al., “Receptor recognition by novel coronavirus from Wuhan: An analysis based on decade-long structural studies of SARS,” J. of Virology, Vol.94, doi: 10.1128/JVI.00127-20, 2020.
  52. [52] M. Hoffmann et al., “SARS-CoV-2 cell entry depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and is blocked by a clinically proven protease inhibitor,” Cell, Vol.181, pp.271-280, 2020.
  53. [53] A. C. Sims et al., “Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection of human ciliated airway epithelia: Role of ciliated cells in viral spread in the conducting airways of the lungs,” J. of Virology, Vol.79, pp. 15511-15524, 2005.
  54. [54] P. A. Reyfman et al., “Single-cell transcriptomic analysis of human lung provides insights into the pathobiology of pulmonary fibrosis,” American J. of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol.199, pp. 1517-1536, 2019.
  55. [55] N. L. Tang et al., “Early enhanced expression of interferon-inducible protein-10 (CXCL-10) and other chemokines predicts adverse outcome in severe acute respiratory syndrome,” Clinical Chemistry, Vol.51, pp. 2333-2340, 2005.
  56. [56] A. S. Hancock et al., “Transcriptome analysis of infected and bystander type 2 alveolar epithelial cells during influenza A virus infection reveals in vivo Wnt pathway downregulation,” J. of Virology, Vol.92, doi: 10.1128/JVI.01325-18, 2018.
  57. [57] Z. Qian et al., “Innate immune response of human alveolar type II cells infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus,” American J. of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, Vol.48, pp. 742-748, 2013.
  58. [58] J. Wang et al., “Innate immune response to influenza A virus in differentiated human alveolar type II cells,” American J. of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, Vol.45, pp. 582-591, 2011.
  59. [59] B. Rockx et al., “Early upregulation of acute respiratory distress syndrome-associated cytokines promotes lethal disease in an aged-mouse model of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection,” J. of Virology, Vol.83, pp. 7062-7074, 2009.
  60. [60] Z. Wu and J. M. McGoogan, “Characteristics of and important lessons from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in China: Summary of a report of 72314 cases from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention,” JAMA, Vol.323, pp. 1239-1242, 2020.
  61. [61] E. C. Mossel et al., “SARS-CoV replicates in primary human alveolar type II cell cultures but not in type I-like cells,” Virology, Vol.372, pp. 127-135, 2007.
  62. [62] V. K. Weinheimer et al., “Influenza A viruses target type II pneumocytes in the human lung,” The J. of Infectious Diseases, Vol.206, pp. 1685-1694, 2012.
  63. [63] J. Wu et al., “Chest CT findings in patients with corona virus disease 2019 and its relationship with clinical features,” Investigative Radiology, Vol.55, pp. 257-261, 2020.
  64. [64] S. Zhang et al., “High-resolution CT features of 17 cases of corona virus disease 2019 in Sichuan province China,” European Respiratory J., Vol.55, doi: 10.1183/13993003.00334-2020, 2020.
  65. [65] P. A. Kumar et al., “Distal airway stem cells yield alveoli in vitro and during lung regeneration following H1N1 influenza infection,” Cell, Vol.147, pp. 525-538, 2011.
  66. [66] M. Yee et al., “Alternative progenitor lineages regenerate the adult lung depleted of alveolar epithelial type 2 cells,” American J. of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, Vol.56, pp. 453-464, 2017.
  67. [67] J. Gu and C. Korteweg, “Pathology and pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome,” The American J. of Pathology, Vol.170, pp. 1136-1147, 2007.
  68. [68] Z. Xu et al., “Pathological findings of COVID-19 associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome,” The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, Vol.8, pp. 420-422, 2020.
  69. [69] N. M. Nikolaidis et al., “Mitogenic stimulation accelerates influenza-induced mortality by increasing susceptibility of alveolar type II cells to infection,” Proc. of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol.114, pp. 6613-6622, 2017.
  70. [70] J. C. Ho et al., “The effect of aging on nasal mucociliary clearance, beat frequency, and ultrastructure of respiratory cilia,” American J. of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol.163, pp. 983-988, 2001.
  71. [71] S. A. Jeffers et al., “CD209L (L-SIGN) is a receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus,” Proc. of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol.101, pp. 15748-15753, 2004.
  72. [72] T. J. Braciale and Y. S. Hahn, “Immunity to viruses,” Immunological Reviews, Vol.255, pp. 5-12, 2013.
  73. [73] M. Thompson et al., “Pattern recognition receptors and the innate immune response to viral infection,” Viruses, Vol.3, pp. 920-940, 2011.
  74. [74] M. Shimizu, “Clinical features of cytokine storm syndrome,” R. Q. Cron and E. M. Behrens (Eds.), “Cytokine Storm Syndrome,” pp. 31-42, Springer, 2019.
  75. [75] C. Huang et al., “Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China,” The Lancet, Vol.395, pp. 497-506, 2020.
  76. [76] C.-C. Lai et al., “Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19): The epidemic and the challenges,” Int. J. of Antimicrobial Agents, Vol.55, doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105924, 2020.
  77. [77] T. Ishikawa, “Clinical preparedness for cytokine storm induced by the highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus,” J. of Pharmacogenomics & Pharmacoproteomics, Vol.3, doi: 10.4172/2153-0645.1000e131, 2012.
  78. [78] S. Kalaiyarasu et al., “Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus induces cytokine dysregulation with suppressed maturation of chicken monocyte-derived dendritic cells,” Microbiology and Immunology, Vol.60, pp. 687-693, 2016.
  79. [79] P. C. Y. Woo et al., “Cytokine profiles induced by the novel swine-origin influenza A/H1N1 virus: Implications for treatment strategies,” The J. of Infectious Diseases, Vol.201, pp. 346-353, 2020.
  80. [80] S. Lau et al., “Delayed induction of proinflammatory cytokines and suppression of innate antiviral response by the novel Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: Implications for pathogenesis and treatment,” J. of General Virology, Vol.94, pp. 2679-2690, 2013.
  81. [81] R. Channappanavar and S. Perlman, “Pathogenic human coronavirus infections: causes and consequences of cytokine storm and immunopathology,” Seminars in Immunopathology, Vol.39, pp. 529-539, 2017.
  82. [82] E. Behrens et al., “Interleukin 1 receptor antagonist to treat cytophagic histiocytic panniculitis with secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis,” The J. of Rheumatology, Vol.33, pp. 2081-2084, 2006.
  83. [83] H. Chen et al., “Management of cytokine release syndrome related to CAR-T cell therapy,” Frontiers of Medicine. Vol.13, pp. 610-617, 2019.
  84. [84] X. Xu et al., “Effective treatment of severe COVID-19 patients with Tocilizumab,” Proc. of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol.117, pp. 11970-11975, 2020.
  85. [85] Roche, “Roche initiates Phase III clinical trial of Actemra/RoActemra in hospitalised patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia,” [accessed March 19, 2020]
  86. [86] WHO, “Coronavirus disease (COVID-19),” [accessed November 10, 2020]
  87. [87] N. Zhu et al., “A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019,” The New England J. of Medicine, Vol.382, pp. 727-733, 2020.
  88. [88] S. L. Emery et al., “Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay for SARS associated coronavirus,” Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol.10, pp. 311-316, 2004.
  89. [89] E. R. Gaunt et al., “Epidemiology and clinical presentations of the four human coronaviruses 229E, HKU1, NL63, and OC43 detected over 3 years using a novel multiplex real-time PCR method,” J. of Clinical Microbiology, Vol.48, pp. 2940-2947, 2010.
  90. [90] P. Zhou et al., “A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin,” Nature, Vol.579, pp. 270-273, 2020.
  91. [91] WHO, “Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) technical guidance: Laboratory testing for 2019-nCoV in humans,” [accessed March 12, 2020]
  92. [92] J. F. Chan et al., “Genomic characterization of the 2019 novel human-pathogenic coronavirus isolated from a patient with atypical pneumonia after visiting Wuhan,” Emerging Microbes & Infections, Vol.9, pp. 221-236, 2020.
  93. [93] J. F. Chan et al., “A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person to person transmission: a study of a family cluster,” The Lancet, Vol.395, pp. 514-523, 2020.
  94. [94] T. Singhal, “A review of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19),” The Indian J. of Pediatrics, Vol.87, pp. 281-286, 2020.
  95. [95] Y. Liu et al., “Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio as an independent risk factor for mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19,” J. of Infection, Vol.323, pp. 1406-1407, 2020.
  96. [96] C. K. Wong et al., “Plasma inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in severe acute respiratory syndrome,” Clinical & Experimental Immunology, Vol.136, pp. 95-103, 2004.
  97. [97] S. Perlman, “Another decade, another coronavirus,” The New England J. of Medicine, Vol.382, pp. 760-762, 2020.
  98. [98] Z. M. Chen et al., “Diagnosis and treatment recommendations for pediatric respiratory infection caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus,” World J. of Pediatrics, Vol.16, pp. 240-246, 2020.
  99. [99] W. Zhang et al., “Molecular and serological investigation of 2019-nCoV infected patients: Implication of multiple shedding routes,” Emerging Microbes & Infections, Vol.9, pp. 386-389, 2020.
  100. [100] K. Shirato et al., “Development of genetic diagnostic methods for novel coronavirus 2019 (nCoV-2019) in Japan,” Japanese J. of Infectious Diseases, Vol.73, pp. 304-307, 2020.
  101. [101] CDC, “COVID-19 testing overview,” [accessed December 7, 2020]
  102. [102] National Health Commission of the People’s Republic of China, “The diagnostic and treatment protocol of COVID-19,” [accessed March 3, 2020]
  103. [103] F. Song et al., “Emerging coronavirus 2019-nCoV pneumonia,” Radiology, Vol.295, pp. 210-217, 2020.
  104. [104] A. Bernheim et al., “Chest CT findings in coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19): Relationship to duration of infection,” Radiology, Vol.295, pp. 685-691, 2020.
  105. [105] T. Franquet, “Imaging of pulmonary viral pneumonia,” Radiology, Vol.260, pp. 18-39, 2011.
  106. [106] G. Kampf et al., “Persistence of coronaviruses on inanimate surfaces and its inactivation with biocidal agents,” J. of Hospital Infection, Vol.104, pp. 246-251, 2020.
  107. [107] WHO, “Clinical management of severe acute respiratory infection when novel Coronavirus (nCoV) infection is suspected,” [accessed March 17, 2020]
  108. [108] C. Chen et al., “Thalidomide combined with low-dose glucocorticoid in the treatment of COVID-19 pneumonia,” Preprints, 2020, [accessed February 26, 2020]
  109. [109] P. Colson et al., “Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine as available weapons to fight COVID-19,” Int. J. of Antimicrobial Agents, Vol.55, pp. 1-3, 2020.
  110. [110] Egypt Ministry of Health and Population, “Management, diagnosis and treatment protocol for COVID-19,”, [accessed March 23, 2020]
  111. [111] Saudi Arabia Ministry of Health, “Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) guidelines,” [accessed May 15, 2020]
  112. [112] H. Li et al., “Potential antiviral therapeutics for 2019 novel coronavirus,” Chinese J. of tuberculosis and respiratory diseases, Vol.43, pp. 170-172, 2020.
  113. [113] J. Gao et al., “Anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory effects of total glucosides of Yupingfeng powder,” Chinese Medical J., Vol.122, pp. 1636-1641, 2009.
  114. [114] X. Yao et al., “In vitro antiviral activity and projection of optimized dosing design of hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2),” Clinical Infectious Diseases, Vol.71, pp. 732-739, 2020.
  115. [115] M. Wang et al., “Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro,” Cell Research, Vol.30, pp. 269-271, 2020.
  116. [116] M. J. Vincent et al., “Chloroquine is a potent inhibitor of SARS coronavirus infection and spread,” Virology J., Vol.2, pp. 69-79, 2005.
  117. [117] A. Woodyatt et al., “Coronavirus news,” CNN, March 30, 2020, [accessed March 30, 2020]
  118. [118] R. Di Caprio et al., “Anti-inflammatory properties of low and high doxycycline doses: An in vitro study,” Mediators of Inflammation, Vol.2015, doi: 10.1155/2015/329418, 2015.
  119. [119] T. P. Sheahan et al., “Comparative therapeutic efficacy of remdesivir and combination lopinavir, ritonavir, and interferon beta against MERS-Co,” Nature Communications, Vol.11, pp. 1-14, 2020.
  120. [120] E. J. Mifsud et al., “Prophylaxis of ferrets with nitazoxanide and oseltamivir combinations is more effective at reducing the impact of influenza a virus infection compared to oseltamivir monotherapy,” Antiviral Research, Vol.176, Article No.104751, 2020.
  121. [121] W. Han et al., “The course of clinical diagnosis and treatment of a case infected with coronavirus disease 2019,” J. of Medical Virology, Vol.92, pp. 461-463, 2020.
  122. [122] J. Lim et al., “Case of the index patient who caused tertiary transmission of COVID-19 infection in Korea: The application of lopinavir/ritonavir for the treatment of COVID-19 infected pneumonia monitored by quantitative RT-PCR,” J. of Korean Medical Science,” Vol.35, doi: 10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e79, 2020.
  123. [123] C. M. Chu et al., “Role of lopinavir/ritonavir in the treatment of SARS: Initial virological and clinical findings,” Thorax, Vol.59, pp. 252-256, 2004.
  124. [124] X. Huang et al., “Efficacy and biological safety of lopinavir/ritonavir based anti-retroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected patients: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” Scientific Reports, Vol.5, pp. 1-8, 2015.
  125. [125] J. A. Al-Tawfiq et al., “Ribavirin and interferon therapy in patients infected with the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: An observational study,” Int. J. of Infectious Diseases, Vol.20, pp. 42-46, 2014.
  126. [126] Y. M. Arabi et al., “Ribavirin and interferon therapy for critically ill patients with Middle East respiratory syndrome: A multicenter observational study,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, Vol.70, pp. 1837-1844, 2019.
  127. [127] Y. Furuta et al., “Favipiravir (T-705), a novel viral RNA polymerase inhibitor,” Antiviral Research, Vol.100, pp. 446-454, 2013.
  128. [128] Y. Furuta et al., “Favipiravir (T-705), a broad spectrum inhibitor of viral RNA polymerase,” Proc. of the Japan Academy, Ser. B, Physical and Biological Sciences, Vol.93, pp. 449-463, 2017.
  129. [129] A. B. Janowski et al., “Antiviral activity of ribavirin and favipiravir against human astroviruses,” J. of Clinical Virology, Vol.123, pp. 1-4, 2020.
  130. [130] J. D. Graci and C. E. Cameron, “Mechanisms of action of ribavirin against distinct viruses,” Reviews in Medical Virology, Vol.16, pp. 37-48, 2006.
  131. [131] S. Crotty et al., “RNA virus error catastrophe: direct molecular test by using ribavirin,” Proc. of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol.98, pp. 6895-6900, 2001.
  132. [132] P. Luo et al., “Tocilizumab treatment in COVID-19: A single center experience,” J. of Medical Virology, Vol.92, pp. 814-818, 2020.
  133. [133] W. Zhang et al., “The use of anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of people with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): The experience of clinical immunologists from China,” Clinical Immunology, Vol.214, Article No.108393, 2020.
  134. [134] N. Lee et al., “Effects of early corticosteroid treatment on plasma SARS-associated Coronavirus RNA concentrations in adult patients,” J. of Clinical Virology, Vol.31, pp. 304-309, 2004.
  135. [135] C. Shen et al., “Treatment of 5 critically ill patients with COVID-19 with convalescent plasma,” JAMA Network, Vol.323, pp. 1582-1589, 2020.
  136. [136] S. Jawhara, “Could intravenous immunoglobulin collected from recovered coronavirus patients protect against COVID-19 and strengthen the immune system of new patients,” Int. J. of Molecular Sciences, Vol.21, 2272, 2020.
  137. [137] N. Bruni et al., “Antimicrobial activity of lactoferrin-related peptides and applications in human and veterinary medicine,” Molecules, Vol.21, 752, 2016.
  138. [138] G. Serrano et al., “Liposomal lactoferrin as potential preventative and cure for COVID-19,” Int. J. of Research in Health Sciences, Vol.8, pp. 8-15, 2020.
  139. [139] A. J. W. te Velthuis et al., “Zn2+ inhibits coronavirus and arterivirus RNA polymerase activity in vitro and zinc ionophores block the replication of these viruses in cell culture,” PLOS Pathogens, Vol.6, Article No.e1001176, 2010.
  140. [140] X. Li et al., “Molecular immune pathogenesis and diagnosis of COVID-19,” J. of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Vol.10, pp. 102-108, 2020.
  141. [141] S. A. Read et al., “The role of zinc in antiviral immunity,” Advances in Nutrition, Vol.10, pp. 696-710, 2019.
  142. [142] T. Ishida, “Review on the role of Zn2+ ions in viral pathogenesis and the effect of Zn2+ ions for host cell-virus growth inhibition,” American J. of Biomedical Science and Research, Vol.2, pp. 28-37, 2019.
  143. [143] A. C. Carr et al., “Hypovitaminosis C and vitamin C deficiency in critically ill patients despite recommended enteral and parenteral intakes,” Critical Care, Vol.21, pp. 1-10, 2017.
  144. [144] J. Thachil et al., “ISTH interim guidance on recognition and management of coagulopathy in COVID-19,” J. of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, Vol.18, pp. 1023-1026, 2020.
  145. [145] F. A. Klok et al., “Incidence of thrombotic complications in critically ill ICU patients with COVID-19,” Thrombosis Research, Vol.191, pp. 148-150, 2020.
  146. [146] N. Tang et al., “Abnormal coagulation parameters are associated with poor prognosis in patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia,” J. of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, Vol.18, pp. 844-847, 2020.
  147. [147] N. Tang et al., “Anticoagulant treatment is associated with decreased mortality in severe coronavirus disease 2019 patients with coagulopathy,” J. of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, Vol.18, pp. 1094-1099, 2020.
  148. [148] S. Idell, “Coagulation, fibrinolysis, and fibrin deposition in acute lung injury,” Critical Care Medicine, Vol.31, pp. 213-220, 2003.
  149. [149] J. Li et al., “Low-molecular-weight heparin treatment for acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” Int. J. of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Vol.11, pp. 414-422, 2018.
  150. [150] CDC, “Interim infection prevention and control recommendations for patients with suspected or confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in healthcare settings,” [accessed November 6, 2020]
  151. [151] WHO, “Report of the WHO-China joint mission on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19),” [accessed February 24, 2020]
  152. [152] C.-J. Neiderud, “How urbanization affects the epidemiology of emerging infectious diseases,” Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, Vol.5, Article No.27060, 2015.
  153. [153] European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), “Outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2): Increased transmission beyond China – fourth update,” February 14, 2020, [accessed February 26, 2020]
  154. [154] WHO, “Infection prevention and control during health care when novel coronavirus (nCoV) infection is suspected interim guidance,” [accessed March 19, 2020]
  155. [155] R. A. Kock et al., “2019-nCoV in context: Lessons learned,” The Lancet Planetary Health, Vol.4, pp. 87-88, 2020.
  156. [156] P. Daszak et al., “A strategy to prevent future pandemics similar to the 2019-nCoV outbreak,” Biosafety and Health, Vol.2, pp. 6-8, 2020.
  157. [157] M. A. Medhat and M. El Kassas, “COVID-19 in Egypt: Uncovered figures or a different situation,” J. of Global Health, Vol.10, pp. 1-4, 2020.
  158. [158] A. A. Algaissi et al., “Preparedness and response to COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia: Building on MERS experience,” J. of Infection and Public Health, Vol.13, pp. 834-838, 2020.
  159. [159] A. Miller et al., “Correlation between universal BCG vaccination policy and reduced morbidity and mortality for COVID-19: an epidemiological study,” medRxiv preprint, doi: 10.1101/2020.03.24.20042937, March 28, 2020.
  160. [160] J. Kleinnijenhuis et al., “Long-lasting effects of BCG vaccination on both heterologous Th1/Th17 responses and innate trained immunity,” J. of Innate Immunity, Vol.6, pp. 152-158, 2014.

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, Opera.

Last updated on Mar. 01, 2021