Towards a Comparative Framework of Adaptive Planning and Anticipatory Action Regimes in Chile, Japan, and the US: An Exploration of Multiple Contexts Informing Tsunami Risk-Based Planning and Relocation
Naoko Kuriyama*1,, Elizabeth Maly*2, Jorge León*3, Daniel Abramson*4, Lan T. Nguyen*4, and Ann Bostrom*5
*1Department of Architecture, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University
1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe, Hyogo 657-8501, Japan
*2International Research Institute of Disaster Science (IRIDeS), Tohoku University, Miyagi, Japan
*3Department of Architecture, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Valparaíso, Chile
*4Department of Urban Design and Planning, University of Washington, Washington, USA
*5Evans School of Public Policy and Governance, University of Washington, Washington, USA
Coastal regions around the Pacific Ring of Fire share the risk of massive earthquakes and tsunamis. Along with their own political-economic, cultural and biophysical contexts, each region has their own history and experiences of tsunami disasters. Coastal areas of Washington State in the U.S. are currently at risk of experiencing a tsunami following a massive Magnitude 9 (M9) earthquake anticipated in the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ). Looking ahead to consider adaptive planning in advance of a tsunami following this M9 event, this paper explores how lessons from recent megaquake- and tsunami-related experiences of risk-based planning and relocation in coastal areas of Japan and Chile could inform anticipatory action in coastal Washington State. Based on a comparison of earthquake and tsunami hazards, social factors, and the roles of government, this paper outlines a framework to compare policy contexts of tsunami risk-based planning and relocation in three Ring of Fire countries, including factors shaping the possible transfer of approaches between them. Findings suggest some aspects of comparative significance and commonalities shared across coastal communities in the three countries and at the same time highlight numerous differences in governance and policies related to planning and relocation. Although there are limitations to the transferability of lessons in disaster adaptive planning and anticipatory action from one national/regional context to another, we believe there is much more that Washington and the Pacific Northwest can learn from Japanese and Chilean experiences. In any context, risk reduction policies and actions need to garner political support in order to be implemented. Additional case study research and detailed analysis is still needed to understand specific lessons that may be applied to detailed risk-based planning and relocation programs across these different national contexts.
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