JDR Vol.15 No.3 pp. 368-376
doi: 10.20965/jdr.2020.p0368


Evaluating Expectations for Training Transfer: Exploratory Study on a Capacity Development Project for Road and Bridge Technology in Myanmar

Michael Henry*,†, Kohei Nagai**, Koji Matsumoto*, and Hiroshi Yokota*

*Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University
Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628, Japan

Corresponding author

**Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

September 24, 2019
February 18, 2020
March 30, 2020
capacity development, quality control, road and bridge infrastructure, training transfer

To ensure the long-term performance of bridges in Myanmar, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) initiated a capacity development project to enhance the quality control capabilities of engineers in the Myanmar government. Such expertise will be transferred to a group of “core trainers,” who will be responsible for sharing their acquired skills and knowledge with other engineers in Myanmar. The effective transfer of Japanese expertise is thus crucial for realizing the project’s goal of improving the quality of bridges and structures managed by the government of Myanmar. This research aims to explore the perspectives and expectations of the core trainers’ for training transfer after the project using the results of a survey questionnaire and to evaluate the effect of various factors on their expectations for transfer using partial least squares path modeling. It was found that the core trainers had positive expectations regarding the benefits of training transfer as well as generally positive perspectives on the factors affecting such transfer. The results of statistical modeling, however, failed to reveal any significant relationships between the modeled factors and the expectations for training transfer. This may be attributable to the sample size, which is limited by the scope of the capacity development project; a mixed method approach is therefore proposed as a more appropriate method in this context. Nonetheless, the results generally suggest that the work environment is fundamental in facilitating effective training transfer, and further research is necessary.

Cite this article as:
M. Henry, K. Nagai, K. Matsumoto, and H. Yokota, “Evaluating Expectations for Training Transfer: Exploratory Study on a Capacity Development Project for Road and Bridge Technology in Myanmar,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.15 No.3, pp. 368-376, 2020.
Data files:
  1. [1] World Bank Group, “Myanmar Economic Monitor,” World Bank Group, June 2019, [accessed September 24, 2019]
  2. [2] M. Henry, C. Yamasaki, K. Nagai, K. Matsumoto, and H. Yokota, “Technology Transfer for Safe and Sustainable Road Bridge Life Cycle Management in Myanmar,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.13, No.1, pp. 88-98, doi: 10.20965/jdr.2018.p0088, 2018.
  3. [3] Japan Infrastructure Partners, “Current situation and issues of Myanmar’s bridge work,” Japan Infrastructure Partners, 2012.
  4. [4] Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, “Investigation of collapse accident of Myaungmya bridge and safety survey of similar type bridges in Myanmar,” IIS-UT Press Release, 15 June 2018, [accessed September 24, 2019]
  5. [5] A. Mitsuishi and K. Senoo, “The project for capacity development of road and bridge technology in the Republic of the Union of Myanmar: Introduction of the project and importance of quality control,” Presentation Materials, SIP/SATREPS-JPCI Joint Int. Seminar on Infrastructure Asset Management: Present and Future Road Infrastructure Maintenance in Myanmar and Japan, Yangon Technological University, 2017.
  6. [6] T. T. Baldwin and J. K. Ford, “Transfer of training: a review and directions for future research,” Personnel Psychology, Vol.41, pp. 63-105, 1988.
  7. [7] E. Salas, K. A. Wilson, H. A. Priest, and J. W. Guthrie, “Design, delivery, and evaluation of training systems,” G. Salvendy (Ed.), “Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics,” 3rd edition, John Wiley & Sons, pp. 472-512, 2006.
  8. [8] D. L. Kirkpatrick, “Evaluating Training Programs: The four levels,” Berrett-Koehler, 1994.
  9. [9] D. L. Kirkpatrick and J. D. Kirkpatrick, “Evaluating Training Programs: The four levels,” 3rd edition, Berrett-Koehler, 2006.
  10. [10] E. F. Holton, R. A. Bates, and W. E. A. Ruona, “Development of a generalized learning transfer system inventory,” Human Resource Development Quarterly, Vol.11, No.4, pp. 333-360, 2000.
  11. [11] J. A. Tan, R. J. Hall, and C. Boyve, “The role of employee reactions in predicting training effectiveness,” Human Resource Development Quarterly, Vol.14, No.4, pp. 397-411, 2003.
  12. [12] L. A. Burke and H. M. Hutchins, “Training transfer: An integrative literature review,” Human Resource Development Review, Vol.6, No.3, pp. 263-296, 2007.
  13. [13] J. P. Campbell, “Training design for performance improvement,” J. P. Campbell, R. J. Campbell, and Associates (Eds.), “Productivity in Organizations,” Jossey-Bass, pp. 177-216, 1988.
  14. [14] J. E. Mathieu, S. I. Tannenbaum, and E. Salas, “Influences of individual and situational characteristics on measures of training effectiveness,” Academy of Management J., Vol.35, No.4, pp. 828-847, 1992.
  15. [15] R. Velada, A, Caetano, J. W. Michel, B. D. Lyons, and M. J. Kavanagh, “The effect of training design, individual characteristics and work environment on transfer of training,” Int. J. of Training and Development, Vol.11, No.4, pp. 282-294, 2007.
  16. [16] R. R. Haccoun and A. M. Saks, “Training in the 21st century: Some lessons from the last one,” Canadian Psychology, Vol.39, No.1-2, pp. 33-51, 1998.
  17. [17] A. D. Stajkovic and F. Luthans, “Self-efficacy and work-related performance: A meta-analysis,” Psychological Bulletin, Vol.124, pp. 240-261, 1998.
  18. [18] R. Velada and A. Caetano, “Training transfer: the mediating role of perception of learning,” J. of European Industrial Training, Vol.31, pp. 283-296, 2007.
  19. [19] J. Z. Rouiller and I. L. Goldstein, “The relationship between organizational transfer climate and positive transfer of training,” Human Resource Development Quarterly, Vol.4, pp. 377-390, 1993.
  20. [20] C. M. Axtell, S. Maitlis, and S. K. Yearta, “Predicting immediate and longer-term transfer of training,” Personnel Review, Vol.26, No.3, pp. 201-213, 1997.
  21. [21] E. F. Holton, “The Flawed Four-Level Evaluation Model,” Human Resource Development Quarterly, Vol.7, pp. 5-21, 1996.
  22. [22] T. Homklin, Y. Takahashi, and K. Techakanont, “Effects of individual and work Environment characteristics on training effectiveness: evidence from skill certification system for automotive industry in Thailand,” Int. Business Research, Vol.6, No.12, doi: 10.5539/ibr.v6n12p1, 2013.
  23. [23] F. Hernández-Perlines, J. Moreno-García, and B. Yaẽz-Araque, “The mediating role of competitive strategy in international entrepreneurial orientation,” J. of Business Research, Vol.69, No.11, pp. 5383-5389, 2016.
  24. [24] W. W. Chin, “The partial least squares approach to structural equation modeling,” G. A. Marcoulides (Ed.), “Modern Methods for Business Research,” pp. 295-336, Psychology Press, 1998.
  25. [25] R Core Team, “R: A language and environment for statistical computing,” R Foundation for Statistical Computing, 2018, [accessed March 11, 2020]
  26. [26] G. Sanchez, “PLS Path Modeling with R,” Trowchez Editions, 2013, [accessed March 11, 2020]
  27. [27] K. F. Punch, “Introduction to Social Research,” 2nd edition, SAGE Publications, 2005.

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, Opera.

Last updated on Apr. 05, 2024