single-dr.php

JDR Vol.15 No.1 pp. 20-40
(2020)
doi: 10.20965/jdr.2020.p0020

Paper:

Developing a Disaster Management Education and Training Program for Children with Intellectual Disabilities to Improve “Zest for Life” in the Event of a Disaster – A Case Study on Tochigi Prefectural Imaichi Special School for the Intellectually Disabled –

Toshimitsu Nagata*,† and Reo Kimura**

*Utsunomiya Local Meteorological Office, Meteorological Agency
1-4 Akebono-cho, Utsunomiya-shi, Tochigi 320-0845, Japan

Corresponding author

**Faculty and Graduate School of Human Science and Environment, University of Hyogo, Himeji, Japan

Received:
March 22, 2019
Accepted:
October 24, 2019
Published:
February 1, 2020
Keywords:
intellectual disability, special support education, disaster management education/training program, instructional design (ID), earthquake early warning (EEW)
Abstract

In this study, we first discuss the current status and issues of disaster management education in the context of special support education in Japan, in view of the casualties of those with disabilities during major past earthquakes in Japan. We highlight that there are very few examples of practical implementation of, instructional material for, or previous studies on disaster management education for disabled children, or an established systematic instructional method. As a result, disaster management education tailored to the specific type of disability has been implemented on a school-to-school basis among Special Support Schools for children with disabilities. In many cases, teacher-led evacuation drills have been considered disaster management education. This is an indication that the disaster management education currently practiced in Special Support Schools is inadequate to achieve the goal of “fostering the attitude of acting on one’s initiative” as set forth by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). In view of the situation in Japan, where casualties due to natural disasters continue to occur frequently since the Great East Japan Earthquake, it is urgent that we promote practical disaster management education to foster the Zest for Life among disabled children. This paper is a case study of disaster management education that targets those with intellectual disabilities, which is the largest reported disability type among children enrolled in Special Support Schools in Japan. We applied the ADDIE (Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, Evaluate) process in instructional design to develop an earthquake disaster management program designed to heighten the capacity of disabled children to foresee and circumvent danger to themselves, so as to protect their lives from large earthquakes which occur frequently in Japan. Specifically, the objective is to apply the earthquake disaster management education program, developed by the authors in a previous study, to children with intellectual disabilities. To this end, we implemented the program at the target school and verified its educational effect while taking into consideration the degree or condition of disability and the learning characteristics of the intellectually disabled and developed a valid program for intellectually disabled children. The program allows the teachers of Special Support Schools to practice disaster management education in the context of daily classroom study with students without the need to dispatch a disaster management expert to the school each time a program is implemented. Additionally, the program can be customized by the onsite teacher for individual schools, which can lead to a systematic program in disaster management education. In addition, we propose a framework to establish a network of stakeholders, including disaster management experts or organizations and educational institutions to effectively and strategically promote disaster management education. This framework makes it possible to implement the present program the most impactful way, and to maximize the benefits to the schools in Tochigi prefecture.

Cite this article as:
T. Nagata and R. Kimura, “Developing a Disaster Management Education and Training Program for Children with Intellectual Disabilities to Improve “Zest for Life” in the Event of a Disaster – A Case Study on Tochigi Prefectural Imaichi Special School for the Intellectually Disabled –,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.15, No.1, pp. 20-40, 2020.
Data files:
References
  1. [1] Japan Meteorological Agency, “Major Damage-Producing Earthquakes that have Occurred in Japan and Its Vicinity,” 2019, https://www.data.jma.go.jp/svd/eqev/data/higai/higai1996-new.html (in Japanese) [accessed March 1, 2019]
  2. [2] Cabinet Office of Japanese Government, “White Paper on Disabilities 2017,” 2017 (in Japanese).
  3. [3] Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, “Final Report of Council on Disaster Education and Disaster Management after the Great East Japan Earthquake,” 2012.
  4. [4] Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, “Reference Materials for Disaster Management at School – Development of Disaster Management Education to Foster ‘Zest for Life’,” 2013 (in Japanese).
  5. [5] Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, “Safety Education in School to Foster ’Zest for Life’,” 2010 (in Japanese).
  6. [6] Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, “Student Enrollment in Special Support Schools – total of national, public, and private schools –,” 2017, http://www.mext.go.jp/a_menu/shotou/tokubetu/002.htm (in Japanese) [accessed March 1, 2019]
  7. [7] Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, “Survey Study on Systematic Instruction in Disaster Management Education (Report),” 2014 (in Japanese).
  8. [8] Y. Fujiwara, “Developing classroom instruction that children can understand and follow – to nurture interests –,” Tokubetsu Shien Kyoiku Kenkyu, No.672, 2013 (in Japanese).
  9. [9] M. Kojima and M. Kataoka, “Career Education to Foster a Rich Self Understanding in Students with Developmental Disorders or Intellectual Disabilities – 45 Instructional Programs that Value the Inner World,” The Earth Kyoikushinsha Co., 2014 (in Japanese).
  10. [10] M. Fujii and M. Matsumoto, “An Undertaking of Disaster Management Education for Students with Intellectual Disabilities – A Case Study of Gifu Prefectural Kamo Special Needs School,” Bulletin of Center for Educational Practice, Shizuoka University, Vol.22, pp. 73-81, 2014 (in Japanese).
  11. [11] M. Wada, H. Ikeda, R. Ikezaki, and M. Kuribayashi, “A Study on the Way of Disaster Education in Special Support School for Students with Intellectual Disability: Through Examination of Hearing Investigation and Practice on the Curriculum,” Memoirs of the Faculty of Human Development University of Toyama, Vol.10, No.2, pp. 143-153, 2016 (in Japanese).
  12. [12] T. Nagata and R. Kimura, “Practice of Disaster Management Education to Enhance ‘Zest for Life’ by Using Earthquake Early Warning–Cooperation among Local Meteorological Observatory, Board of Education and Schools,” Papers of Institute of Social Safety Science, No.21, pp. 81-88, 2013 (in Japanese).
  13. [13] T. Nagata and R. Kimura, “Proposing a Multi-Hazard Approach to Disaster Management Education to Enhance Children’s ‘Zest for Life’: Development of Disaster Management Education Programs to Be Practiced by Teachers,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.12, No.1, pp. 17-41, 2017.
  14. [14] T. Inagaki and K. Suzuki, “Manual for Design of Classes Ver.2 Instructional Design for Teacher,” Kitaooji Shobo Publishing, 2015 (in Japanese).
  15. [15] K. Suzuki, “Instructional Design for Practice of e-learning,” J. of Japan Society for Educational Technology, Vol.29, No.3, pp. 197-205, 2006 (in Japanese).
  16. [16] Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, “Outline of Results of FY2005 Basic Survey on Intellectually Disabled Children (Persons), January 24, 2007,” 2007 (in Japanese).
  17. [17] Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, “On the Improvement of Curriculum Guidelines for Kindergarten, Elementary School, Junior High School, Senior High School and Special Support School and Necessary Measures (Report),” Central Council for Education, 2016 (in Japanese).
  18. [18] H. Takedomi and K. Matsumi, “Active Learning in Education of the Intellectually Disabled,” Toyokan Publishing Co. Ltd., 2017 (in Japanese).
  19. [19] R. M. Gagne, W. W. Wager, K. C. Golas, and J. M. Keller, “Principles of Instructional Design (5th edtion),” Wadsworth Pub Co, 2004, Translation Supervised by M. Iwasaki and K.Suzuki, “Principles of Instructional Design,” Kitaooji Shobo Publishing, 2007 (in Japanese).
  20. [20] T. Shimano, R. Kimura, H. Hayashi, N. Nagatomo, and Y. Sakurada, “Proposal for Development Cooperation to Enhance the Capacity on Disaster Emergency Response in Developing Countries : A Case Study of Curriculum Development in the People’s Republic of China,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.11, No.2, pp. 341-353, 2016.
  21. [21] R. Kimura, K. Tamura, M. Inoguchi, K. Horie, and H. Hayashi, “Building of Method to Design Educational and Training Programs to Improve Knowledge and Techniques for Support to Reconstruct Livelihood in Tokyo Metropolis by Applying ID Theory,” Papers of Institute of Social Safety Science, No.18, pp. 433-442, 2012 (in Japanese).
  22. [22] T. Nagata and R. Kimura, “Disaster Management Education to Foster ’Zest for Life’ in Visually Impaired Students – Practice of Earthquake Disaster Management Education and Training at Tochigi Prefectural School for the Visually Impaired,” J. of Institute of Social Safety Science, No.33, pp. 115-125, 2018 (in Japanese).
  23. [23] Tochigi Prefecture, “Rehabilitation Certificate (April 1, 2018),” Tochigi Prefecture Document, 2018, http://www.pref.tochigi.lg.jp/e65/ryouikutetyou.html (in Japanese) [accessed March 1, 2019]
  24. [24] D. Kamiya, T. Nakayama, and Y. Ueno, “Issues of Tsunami Evacuation for Special Support Schools and Process of Support Measures – A Case Study of Undertakings in Okinawa Prefecture,” J. of Japan Society of Civil Engineers H (Education), Vol.71, No.1, pp. 9-17, 2015 (in Japanese).

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, IE9,10,11, Opera.

Last updated on Feb. 26, 2020