Disaster Emergency Response Plan of the Royal Thai Embassy in Tokyo, Japan: A Review
Patcharavadee Thamarux*1,*2,, Anawat Suppasri*3, Natt Leelawat*4, Masashi Matsuoka*1, and Fumihiko Imamura*3
*1Department of Architecture and Building Engineering, School of Environment and Society, Tokyo Institute of Technology
4259-G3-2 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8502, Japan
*2Survey Division, Department of Survey, Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand, Nonthaburi, Thailand
*3International Research Institute of Disaster Science (IRIDeS), Tohoku University, Miyagi, Japan
*4Disaster and Risk Management Information Systems Research Group/Department of Industrial Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
Compared to other countries, Thailand has fewer seismic hazards. Hazardous experiences greatly influence the expertise and abilities of actors that implement and execute public disaster responses. In domestic disaster situations, there are protocols and resources that facilitate a national disaster response. However, in overseas responses, disaster response becomes more challenging as more responsibilities with limited authorities and resources are required. In this research, the public disaster response of the Royal Thai Embassy in Tokyo was explored and evaluated on the basis of several disaster scenarios. This research was developed to understand the state of disaster response, enhance the effectiveness of disaster response protocols, and reduce unnecessary resource consumption. This study intended to fulfill organizational needs and responsibilities. The study converts existing protocol that is written in document form into a time series disaster response plan for disaster drills based on a possible worst-case scenario, i.e., the Kumamoto Earthquake scenario in 2016 and the Great Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami in 2011. The plan was used in a disaster drill to evaluate organizational responses. The results from drills and discussions and comments from participant information flow primarily manage communications, cooperation, and connections, which are dependent on experiences and expertise in disaster management. This further affects information flow management and assistance capabilities. The outputs and outcomes from this research can be used as a guideline for application to other embassies in Japan, the Royal Thai Embassy in other countries, and general overseas organizations. This work may apply to other public disaster responses aside from natural disasters.
-  Royal Thai Embassy, Tokyo, Japan, “Emergency Disaster Respond Protocol,” (classified document) (in Thai).
-  N. Leelawat, A. Suppasri, P. Latcharote, and F. Imamura, “The evacuation of Thai residents during Japan’s 2016 Kumamoto earthquakes: An ICT perspective,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.12, No.sp, pp. 669-677, 2017.
-  H. Mintzberg, “Structure in Fives: Designing Effective Organizations,” 2nd edition, Prentice Hall, 1993.
-  A. Suppasri, P. Latcharote, J. D. Bricker, N. Leelawat, A. Hayashi, K. Yamashita, F. Makinoshima, V. Roeber, and F. Imamura, “Improvement of tsunami countermeasures based on lessons from the 2011 great east Japan earthquake and tsunami – situation after five years,” Coast. Eng. J., Vol.58, No.4, 1640011, 2016.
-  “ISO 22320:2011, Societal security – emergency management – requirements for incident response,” 2011.
-  2011 Hyogo Prefecture Government Office, “Earthquake and tsunami disaster response timeline,” 2016 (in Japanese).
-  L. Wang, B. Zhao, and X. Zheng, “Intervention standards, time series and strength of multi-agencies’ response in emergency management,” Proced. Environ. Sci., Vol.11, Part A, pp. 70-76, 2011.
-  B. A. Jackson, “The Problem of Measuring Emergency Preparedness: The Need for Assessing ‘Response Reliability’ as Part of Homeland Security Planning,” RAND Corporation, 2008.
-  Japan Meteorological Agency, “The 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake Portal,” https://www.jma.go.jp/jma/en/2016_Kumamoto_Earthquake/2016_Kumamoto_Earthquake.html [accessed May 29, 2017]
-  M. A. Finney, “Calculation of fire spread rates across random landscapes,” Int. J. Wildland Fire, Vol.12, No.2, pp. 167-174, 2003.
-  J. Sobrino and S. Shafi, “Timing and causes of death after injuries,” Baylor University Medical Center Proc., Vol.26, No.2, pp. 120-123, 2013.