Exploring the Developmental Process and Internal Structure of Kizuki-Based Volunteer Activities for Sustainable Organizations: A Case Study of HARU
Graduate School of Education, Tohoku University
27-1 Kawauchi, Aoba, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8576, Japan
Sustainable organizations are needed for sustainable societies. This study takes particular note of a student-centered practice focused on long-term reconstruction activities after the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) and reveals its developmental processes and internal structure. Kizuki (with-it-ness) was the driving impetus for the sustainable organization, in which each staff member constructed, respected, and shaped their kizuki to take deliberate action. In using the theory of a learning organization, it was possible to improve dynamically and explain holistically the team performance, from which a practical model was developed that could enhance the quality of disaster volunteering and assist in the understanding of transformative processes involved in these types of activity systems.
-  Japan National Council of Social welfare, “Transitions of the number of volunteer activities accepted at disaster volunteer center (tentative aggregate calculation),” https://www.saigaivc.com/%E3%82%A2%E3%83%BC%E3%82%AB%E3%82%A4%E3%83%96/%E3%83%9C%E3%83%A9%E3%83%B3%E3%83%86%E3%82%A3%E3%82%A2%E6%B4%BB%E5%8B%95%E8%80%85%E6%95%B0%E3%81%AE%E6%8E%A8%E7%A7%BB/ [accessed February 21, 2018]
-  M. Suga, “Logic of and systems for volunteer disaster relief activities in Japan,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.6, No.2, pp. 236-243, 2010.
-  M. Matsuyama, R. Kimura, and H. Hayashi, “Organizational structure and institutions for disaster prevention: research on the 1995 Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake in Kobe city,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.10, No.6, pp. 1051-1066, 2015.
-  W. Siembieda, “Toward an enhanced concept of disaster resilience: a commentary on behalf of the editorial committee,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.5, No.5, pp. 487-493, 2010.
-  S. Sone, M. Takeyama, M. Kayana, S, Hayashi, and K. Ishigaki, “The Issues and Realities of Student Disaster Volunteer Activities at Public Nursing Universities in Areas Affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake: A Discussion on Student Disaster Volunteer Activities and Support for Them Going Forward,” Ishikawa J. of Nursing, Vol.14, pp. 127-134, 2017.
-  P. Senge, “The fifth discipline: the art and practice of the learning organization,” NY: Crown Business, 1990.
-  P. Senge, N. Cambron-McCabe, T. Lucas, B. Smith, and J. Dutton, “Schools that learn: a fifth discipline fieldbook for educators, parents, and everyone who cares about education,” NY: Crown Business, 2012.
-  R. Kegan, and L. L. Lahey, “As everyone culture: becoming a deliberately developmental organization,” Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business Review Press, 2016.
-  R. L. Gordon, “How Novice Teachers Can Succeed with Adolescents,” Educational Leadership, Vol.54, No.7, pp. 56-58, 1997.
-  M. Arimoto, “The prospect of educational assessment as a secret ingredient of effective pedagogy in the context of Japanese kizuki (with-it-ness) based on ‘evidence-informed principles for effective teaching and learning’,” Annual Bulletin, Graduate School of Education, Tohoku University, Vol.3, pp. 11-36, 2017.
-  N. Sakamoto, “Professional development through kizuki -cognitive, emotional, and collegial awareness,” Teacher Development: An Int. J. of Teachers’ Professional Development, Vol.15, Issue 2, pp. 187-203, 2011.
-  “Awed by a nation’s quiet dignity -world watches amazed at survivors’ civility and patience amid the ruins,” The Straits Times, March 16, 2011.
-  G. Hughes, “Ipsative assessment -motivation through marking progress,” Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014.
-  S. Belle, “Organizational Learning? Look Again,” The Learning Organization, Vol.23, No.5, pp. 332-341, 2016.
-  H. Hasson, U. von Thile Schwarz, S. Holmstrom, M. Karanika-Murry, and S. Tafvelin, “Improving organizational learning through leadership training,” J. of Workplace Learning, Vol.28, No.3, pp. 115-129, 2016.
-  Northwest Earth Institute, “A Systems Thinking Model: The Iceberg,” https://www.nwei.org/iceberg/ [accessed April 10, 2018]
-  B. S. Merriam, “Qualitative research and case study application in education: revised and expanded,” Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sonsm Inc., 1998.
-  D. Hidayati, “Striving to Reduce Disaster Risk: Vulnerable Communities with Low Levels of Preparedness in Indonesia,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.7, No.1, pp. 75-82, 2012.
-  Y. Kinoshita, “Practice of Grounded Theory Approach – Invitation to Qualitative Research (Grounded Theory Approach no Jissen – Shitsuteki Kenkyu he no Izanai),” Tokyo: Koubundou, 2003.
-  M. Lampert, “When the problem is not the question and the solution is not the answer: mathematical knowing and teaching,” American Educational Research J., Vol.27, No.1, pp. 29-63, 1990.
-  J. Posner, “Urban anthropology: fieldwork in semi-familiar settings,” B. W. Shaffir, A. R. Stebbins, and A. Tarowetz (eds.), Fieldwork experience: qualitative approaches to social research, New York: St Martin’s Press, 1980.
-  R. E. Stake, “The art of case study research,” Thousand Oaks, California: Sage, 1995.
-  W. J. Creswell, “Research design: qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches second edition,” Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, Inc., 2003.
-  HARU, “HARU – the 5-year history,” Center for Service Learning and Extracurricular Activities, Institute for Excellence in Higher Education, Tohoku University, 2016.
-  A part of the semi-structured interview with A, a former member of HARU on March 7, 2018 at Kawauchi-north campus, Tohoku University.
-  Y. Saito, “Rethinking Community in Temporary Housing in the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake,” Annals of Regional and Community Studies, Vol.28, pp. 61-75, 2016.
-  D. R. Sadler, “The Origins and Functions of Evaluative Criteria,” Vol.35, No.3, pp. 285-297, 1985.
-  J. H. Powell, N. Mustafee, A. S. Chen, and M. Hammond, “System-focused risk identification and assessment for disaster preparedness: Dynamic threat analysis,” European J. of Operational Research, Vol.254, Issue 2, pp. 550-564, 2016.
-  M. Arimoto and C. C. Xu, “Visualizing of In-School Teacher Training (Konai Kenshu) Practice in Japan Using Systems Thinking – Through Case Study of Akita Municipal Chikuzan Elementary School,” Tohoku Daigaku Daigakuin Kyoikugaku Kenkyuka Kenkyu Nempo, Vol.64, No.2, pp. 193-211, 2016.
-  M. M. Crossan, H. W. Lane, and R. E. White, “An Organizational Learning Framework: From Intuition to Institution,” Academy of Management Review, Vol.24, No.3, pp. 522-537, 1999.
-  S. R. Snell and M. A. Chak, “The learning organization: leaning and empowerment for whom,” Management Learning, Vol.29, No.3, pp. 337-364, 1998.
-  A part of the semi-structured interview with B, representative of HARU, on March 12, 2018 at Kawauchi-north campus, Tohoku University.
-  A part of the semi-structured interview with Mr. S, who was involved in a residents’ association in the Ohashi temporary housing area in Ishinomaki City and an association promoting residents’ joint association in the temporary housing areas in Ishinomaki City (Ishinomaki Kasetsu Jyutaku Zichi Rengo Suishin kai), on April 17, 2018 at AEON MALL ISHINONMAKI, Ishinomaki City.
-  M. Aminizade, M. N. Moghaddam, M. B. Jam, M. Shamsi, N. Majidi, N. Amanat, and S. H. Hosein, “The Role of Volunteer Citizens in Response to Accidents and Disasters,” Health in Emergencies and Disasters Quarterly, Vol.2, No.3, pp. 107-124, 2017.
-  Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, “Innovating to learn, learning to innovate,” Paris: OECD, 2008.
-  P. Griffin, B. Mcgaw, and E. Care, “Assessment and Teaching of 21st Century Skills,” Netherlands: Springer, 2012.
-  “The minutes of the conference of mayors in government-designated cities (Shiteitoshi Shityokai Symposium),” Sendai, April 26, 2017, http://www.siteitosi.jp/conference/honbun/pdf/h29_04_26_01_siryo/h29_04_26_01_01.pdf [accessed April 10, 2018]